As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 20, 2018

 

Registration No. 333-

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

FORM S-3

 

REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

B. RILEY FINANCIAL, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Delaware 7389 27-0223495
(State of Incorporation) (Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
(IRS Employer
Identification No.)

 

21255 Burbank Blvd, Suite 400
Woodland Hills, California 91367
(818) 884-3737
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including
area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

Bryant Riley
Chief Executive Officer
21255 Burbank Blvd, Suite 400
Woodland Hills, California 91367
(818) 884-3737
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number,
including area code, of agent for service)

 

Copies to:
Scott M. Stanton, Esq.
Morrison & Foerster LLP
12531 High Bluff Drive, Suite 100
San Diego, California 92130
(858) 720-5100

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale of the securities to the public: From time to time, after the effective date of this Registration Statement.

 

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box. ¨

 

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box x

 

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ¨

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ¨

 

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ¨

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ¨

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer¨ Accelerated filer x
Non-accelerated filer (do not check if a smaller reporting company) ¨ Smaller reporting company ¨
  Emerging growth company ¨

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of Securities Act. ¨

 

 

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

Title of each class
of securities to be
registered
(1)
  Amount to be
registered
(2)
   Proposed
maximum
offering price
per unit
(3)(4)
   Proposed
maximum
aggregate offering
price
   Amount of
registration fee
 
Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share              (2)(3)(4)     
Preferred Stock, par value $0.0001 per share              (2)(3)(4)     
Warrants              (2)(3)(4)     
Debt Securities              (2)(3)(4)     
Units(5)              (2)(3)(4)     
Total Offering            $250,000,000   $31,125 

 

(1)Securities registered hereunder may be sold separately or as units with other securities registered hereunder.
(2)An indeterminate aggregate initial offering price and number or amount of the securities of each identified class is being registered as may from time to time be issued at indeterminate prices as shall have an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $250,000,000. Any securities registered under this registration statement may be sold separately or as units with other securities registered under this registration statement. The securities registered also include such indeterminate amounts and numbers of common stock as may be issued upon conversion of or exchange for preferred stock or debt securities that provide for such conversion or exchange. Separate consideration may or may not be received for securities that are issuable upon conversion of, or in exchange for, or upon exercise of, convertible or exchangeable securities.
(3)Not applicable pursuant to General Instruction II.D of Form S-3.
(4)Estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
(5)Consisting of some or all of the securities listed above, in any combination, including common stock, preferred stock, warrants and debt securities.

 

The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, or until this registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 

 

THE INFORMATION IN THIS PROSPECTUS IS NOT COMPLETE AND MAY BE CHANGED. WE MAY NOT SELL THESE SECURITIES UNTIL THE REGISTRATION STATEMENT FILED WITH THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION IS EFFECTIVE. THIS PROSPECTUS IS NOT AN OFFER TO SELL THESE SECURITIES NOR IS IT AN INVITATION FOR OFFERS TO BUY THESE SECURITIES IN ANY STATE OR JURISDICTION WHERE THE OFFER OR SALE IS NOT PERMITTED.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED MARCH 20, 2018

 

PROSPECTUS

 

B. RILEY FINANCIAL, INC.

 

$250,000,000
COMMON STOCK
PREFERRED STOCK
WARRANTS
DEBT SECURITIES
UNITS

 

We may offer and sell from time to time the above securities in one or more classes, in one or more transactions, separately or together in any combination and as separate series, and in amounts, at prices and on terms that we will determine at the times of the offerings. We may also offer any of these securities that may be issuable upon the conversion, exercise or exchange of debt securities, preferred stock or warrants. The aggregate initial offering price of the securities that we may offer through this prospectus will be up to $250,000,000.

 

We will provide specific terms of any offering in supplements to this prospectus, which we will deliver together with the prospectus at the time of sale. The supplements may add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should read this prospectus and any prospectus supplement carefully before you invest. This prospectus may not be used to offer and sell securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

 

We may offer the securities independently or together in any combination for sale directly to purchasers, through one or more underwriters, dealers or agents, or through underwriting syndicates managed or co-managed by one or more underwriters, to be designated at a future date, on a continuous or delayed basis.

 

Our common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Global Market (“NASDAQ”) under the symbol “RILY”. On March 19, 2018, the last reported sales price of our common stock as quoted on NASDAQ was $19.85 per share.

 

On March 15, 2018, the aggregate market value of our outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates was $258.7 million.

 

Investing in our securities involves risks. Risks associated with an investment in our securities will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement and certain of our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, as described under the caption “Risk Factors” on page 2 of this prospectus.

 

NEITHER THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION NOR ANY STATE SECURITIES COMMISSION HAS APPROVED OR DISAPPROVED OF THESE SECURITIES OR DETERMINED IF THIS PROSPECTUS IS TRUTHFUL OR COMPLETE. ANY REPRESENTATION TO THE CONTRARY IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE.

 

The date of this prospectus is ____________, 2018.

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

  Page
ABOUT B. RILEY FINANCIAL, INC. 1
RISK FACTORS 2
SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS 3
DETERMINATION OF OFFERING PRICE 3
USE OF PROCEEDS 4
SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER 4
DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK 5
DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS 7
DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES 7
DESCRIPTION OF UNITS 13
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION 14
LEGAL MATTERS 16
EXPERTS 16
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION 16
INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE 16

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may, from time to time, sell the securities or combinations of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings in amounts that we will determine from time to time. For further information about our business and the securities, you should refer to the registration statement containing this prospectus and its exhibits. The exhibits to our registration statement contain the full text of certain contracts and other important documents we have summarized in this prospectus. Since these summaries may not contain all the information that you may find important in deciding whether to purchase the securities we offer, you should review the full text of these documents. We have filed and plan to continue to file other documents with the SEC that contain information about us and our business. Also, we will file legal documents that control the terms of the securities offered by this prospectus as exhibits to the reports we file by the SEC. The registration statement and other reports can be obtained from the SEC as indicated under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities that we may offer. Each time we offer securities pursuant to this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement and/or other offering material that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering. When we refer to a “prospectus supplement,” we are also referring to any free writing prospectus or other offering material authorized by us. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. If there is any inconsistency between the information in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement or incorporated information having a later date. You should read this prospectus and any prospectus supplement together with additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

You should rely only on the information provided in this prospectus, in any prospectus supplement, or any other offering material that we authorize, including the information incorporated by reference. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus, any supplement to this prospectus, or any other offering material that we authorize, is accurate at any date other than the date indicated on the cover page of these documents or the date of the statement contained in any incorporated documents, respectively. This prospectus is not an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the securities referred to in the prospectus supplement. This prospectus is not an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy such securities in any circumstances in which such offer or solicitation is unlawful. You should not interpret the delivery of this prospectus, or any sale of securities, as an indication that there has been no change in our affairs since the date of this prospectus. You should also be aware that information in this prospectus may change after this date. The information contained in this prospectus or a prospectus supplement or amendment, or incorporated herein or therein by reference, is accurate only as of the date of this prospectus or prospectus supplement or amendment, as applicable, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or prospectus supplement or amendment, as applicable, or of any sale of the shares.

 

As used in this prospectus, unless the context indicates or otherwise requires, “the Company,” “B. Riley,” “we,” “us” or “our” refer to the combined business of B. Riley Financial, Inc. and all of its subsidiaries.

 

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ABOUT B. RILEY FINANCIAL, INC.

 

Our Business

 

We provide collaborative financial services and solutions through several operating subsidiaries, including:

 

·B. Riley FBR, Inc. (“B. Riley FBR”) is a leading, full service investment bank providing financial advisory, corporate finance, research, securities lending and sales & trading services to corporate, institutional and high net worth individual clients. B. Riley FBR was formed in November 2017 through the merger of B. Riley & Co, LLC and FBR Capital Markets & Co.; the name of the combined broker dealer was subsequently changed to B. Riley FBR, Inc. FBR Capital Markets & Co. was acquired by B. Riley Financial in June 2017.

 

·Wunderlich Securities, Inc., acquired by B. Riley Financial in July 2017, provides comprehensive wealth management and brokerage services to individuals and families, corporations and non-profit organizations, including qualified retirement plans, trusts, foundations and endowments.

 

·B. Riley Capital Management, LLC, an SEC registered investment advisor, which includes:

 

oB. Riley Asset Management, an advisor to certain private funds and to institutional and high net worth investors;

 

oB. Riley Wealth Management, a multi-family office practice and wealth management firm focused on the needs of ultra-high net worth individuals and families; and

 

oGreat American Capital Partners, LLC (“GACP”), the general partner of a private fund, GACP I, L.P. a direct lending fund that provides senior secured loans and second lien secured loan facilities to middle market public and private U.S. companies.

 

·Great American Group, LLC, a leading provider of asset disposition and auction solutions to a wide range of retail and industrial clients.

 

·Great American Group Advisory and Valuation Services, LLC, a leading provider of appraisal and valuation services for asset based lenders, private equity firms and corporate clients.

 

We also pursue a strategy of investing in or acquiring companies which we believe have attractive investment return characteristics. On July 1, 2016, we acquired United Online, Inc. (“UOL”) as part of our principal investment strategy.

 

·UOL is a communications company that offers subscription services and products, consisting of Internet access services and devices under the NetZero and Juno brands primarily sold in the United States.

 

We are headquartered in Los Angeles with offices in major cities throughout the United States including New York, Chicago, Boston, Memphis, and Metro Washington D.C.

 

We currently have four operating segments: (i) Capital Markets, through which we provide investment banking, corporate finance, securities lending, restructuring, research, sales and trading and wealth management services to corporate, institutional and high net worth clients; (ii) Auction and Liquidation, through which we provide auction and liquidation services to help clients dispose of assets that include multi-location retail inventory, wholesale inventory, trade fixtures, machinery and equipment, intellectual property and real property; (iii) Valuation and Appraisal, through which we provide valuation and appraisal services to clients with independent appraisals in connection with asset based loans, acquisitions, divestitures and other business needs and (iv) Principal Investments - United Online, through which we provide consumer internet access and related subscription services.

 

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Our Corporate Information

 

We are a Delaware corporation. Our executive offices are located at 21255 Burbank Blvd, Suite 400, Woodland Hills, California 91367, and the telephone number at our principal executive office is (818) 884-3737. Our website addresses are http://www.greatamerican.com, http://www.brileyfin.com and http://www.unitedonline.net. We have not incorporated by reference into this prospectus the information on our website, and you should not consider it to be a part of this document.

 

RISK FACTORS

 

Investing in our securities involves risk. Before making an investment decision, you should carefully consider the risks described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus and in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, together with all of the other information appearing in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement. These risks could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition and could result in a partial or complete loss of your investment. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial may also significantly impair our business operations and financial condition. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

Statements in this prospectus that are not descriptions of historical facts are forward-looking statements that are based on management’s current expectations and assumptions and are subject to risks and uncertainties. If such risks or uncertainties materialize or such assumptions prove incorrect, our business, operating results, financial condition and stock price could be materially negatively affected. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology including “anticipates,” “believes,” “can,” “continue,” “could,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “may,” “plans,” “potential,” “predicts,” “should,” “will,” “would” or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology. Factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those currently anticipated include those set forth in the section titled “Risk Factors.”

 

We operate in a very competitive and rapidly-changing environment and new risks emerge from time to time. As a result, it is not possible for our management to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements we may make. In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the forward-looking events and circumstances discussed in this prospectus may not occur and actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements. You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee that the future results, levels of activity, performance or events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements will be achieved or occur. Moreover, neither we nor any other person assumes responsibility for the accuracy and completeness of the forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements included in this prospectus speak only as of the date hereof, and except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements for any reason after the date of this prospectus to conform these statements to actual results or to changes in our expectations.

 

DETERMINATION OF OFFERING PRICE

 

The terms of any particular offering by us, the initial offering price and the net proceeds to us will be contained in the prospectus supplement, information incorporated by reference or free writing prospectus, relating to such offering.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

 

Unless we inform you otherwise in the prospectus supplement, we expect to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities for capital expenditures, working capital and other general corporate purposes. Pending any specific application, we may initially invest the net proceeds in short-term marketable securities.

 

We have not determined the amounts we plan to spend on the areas listed above or the timing of these expenditures. As a result, our management will have broad discretion to allocate the net proceeds of any offering.

 

SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER

 

We may issue from time to time, in one or more offerings the following securities:

 

·shares of common stock;
·shares of preferred stock;
·warrants exercisable for debt securities, common stock or preferred stock;
·debt securities; and
·units of common stock, preferred stock, warrants or debt securities, in any combination.

 

This prospectus contains a summary of the material general terms of the various securities that we may offer. The specific terms of the securities will be described in a prospectus supplement, information incorporated by reference, or free writing prospectus, which may be in addition to or different from the general terms summarized in this prospectus. Where applicable, the prospectus supplement, information incorporated by reference or free writing prospectus will also describe any material United States federal income tax considerations relating to the securities offered and indicate whether the securities offered are or will be listed on any securities exchange. The summaries contained in this prospectus and in any prospectus supplements, information incorporated by reference or free writing prospectus may not contain all of the information that you would find useful. Accordingly, you should read the actual documents relating to any securities sold pursuant to this prospectus. See “Where You Can Find Additional Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference” for information about how to obtain copies of those documents.

 

The terms of any particular offering, the initial offering price and the net proceeds to us will be contained in the prospectus supplement, information incorporated by reference or free writing prospectus, relating to such offering.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

 

Our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, provides that we are authorized to issue 41,000,000 shares of capital stock. Our authorized capital stock is comprised of 40,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, and 1,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share.

 

The following description is a summary of the material terms of our capital stock and certain provisions of our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, and Amended and Restated Bylaws. This description does not purport to be complete. For information on how you can obtain our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Amended and Restated Bylaws, see “Where You Can Find Additional Information.”

 

Common Stock

 

We are authorized to issue up to 40,000,000 shares of our common stock, par value $0.0001 per share.

 

The holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held of record on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders. Our stockholders do not have cumulative voting rights in the election of directors. Accordingly, holders of a majority of the shares voting are able to elect all of our directors. Subject to preferences that may apply to any then outstanding shares of preferred stock, the holders of outstanding shares of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends out of assets legally available for distribution at the times and in the amounts, if any, that our Board of Directors may determine from time to time. In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, subject to the rights of each series of our preferred stock, which may, from time to time come into existence, holders of our common stock are entitled to share ratably in all of our assets remaining after we pay our liabilities. Holders of our common stock have no preemptive or other subscription or conversion rights. Our common stock is not redeemable and there are no sinking fund provisions applicable to our common stock.

 

Preferred Stock

 

Our Board of Directors is authorized, subject to limitations imposed by Delaware law, to issue up to 1,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share, in one or more series, without stockholder approval. Our Board of Directors is authorized to fix the number of shares of preferred stock and to determine or (so long as no shares of such series are then outstanding) alter for each such series, such voting powers, full or limited, or no voting powers, and such designations, preferences, and relative, participating, optional, or other rights and such qualifications, limitations, or restrictions thereof, as shall be stated and expressed in the resolution or resolutions adopted by the Board of Directors providing for the issuance of such shares and as may be permitted by Delaware General Corporation Law. The rights, privileges, preferences and restrictions of any such additional series may be subordinated to, pari passu with, or senior to any of those of any present or future class or series of our capital stock. Our Board of Directors is also authorized to decrease the number of shares of any series, prior or subsequent to the issue of that series, but not below the number of shares of such series then outstanding. In case the number of shares of any series shall be so decreased, the shares constituting any decrease shall resume the status which they had prior to the adoption of the resolution originally fixing the number of shares of such series.

 

This section describes the general terms and provisions of our preferred stock. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the specific terms of any shares of preferred stock offered through that prospectus supplement, as well as any general terms described in this section that will not apply to those shares of preferred stock. We will file a copy of the certificate of designation that contains the terms of each new series of preferred stock with the SEC each time we issue a new series of preferred stock. Each certificate of designation will establish the number of shares included in a designated series and fix the designation, powers, privileges, preferences and rights of the shares of each series as well as any applicable qualifications, limitations or restrictions. You should refer to the applicable certificate of designation as well as our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation before deciding to buy shares of our preferred stock as described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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Anti-Takeover Provisions of Delaware Law and Charter Provisions

 

Interested Stockholder Transactions

 

We are subject to Section 203 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, which prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any “business combination” with any “interested stockholder” for a period of three years after the date that such stockholder became an interested stockholder, with the following exceptions:

 

·before such date, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested holder;
·upon consummation of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction began, excluding, for purposes of determining the number of shares outstanding, those shares owned by persons who are directors and also officers and by employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or
·on or after such date, the business combination is approved by the board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of the stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder.

 

Section 203 defines “business combination” to include the following:

 

·any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;
·any sale, lease, exchange, mortgage, pledge, transfer or other disposition of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation involving the interested stockholder;
·subject to certain exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder;
·any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock or any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; or
·the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits by or through the corporation.

 

In general, Section 203 defines “interested stockholder” as an entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation or any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by such entity or person.

 

Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws

 

Provisions in our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, and Amended and Restated Bylaws may have the effect of discouraging certain transactions that may result in a change in control of our company. Some of these provisions provide that stockholders cannot act by written consent and impose advance notice requirements and procedures with respect to stockholder proposals and the nomination of candidates for election as directors. Our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation allows us to issue shares of preferred stock (see “Blank Check Preferred Stock”) or common stock without any action by stockholders. Our directors and our officers are indemnified by us to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law pursuant to our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation. Our Board of Directors is expressly authorized to make, alter or repeal our Amended and Restated Bylaws. These provisions may make it more difficult for stockholders to take specific corporate actions and may make it more difficult or discourage an attempt to obtain control of the Company by means of a proxy contest, tender offer, merger or otherwise.

 

Blank Check Preferred Stock

 

Our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, authorizes our Board of Directors to approve the issuance of up to 1,000,000 shares of preferred stock, without further approval of the stockholders, and to determine the rights and preferences of any series of preferred stock. The Board of Directors could issue one or more series of preferred stock with voting, conversion, dividend, liquidation or other rights that would adversely affect the voting power and ownership interest of holders of our common stock. This authority may have the effect of deterring hostile takeovers, delaying or preventing a change in control and discouraging bids for our common stock at a premium over the market price.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

 

We may issue warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or other securities described in this prospectus. We may issue warrants independently or as part of a unit with other securities. Warrants sold with other securities as a unit may be attached to or separate from the other securities. The prospectus supplement relating to any warrants we are offering will describe specific terms relating to the offering, including a description of any other securities sold together with the warrants. These terms will include some or all of the following:

 

·the title of the warrants;
·the aggregate number of warrants offered;
·the price or prices at which the warrants will be issued;
·the designation, number and terms of any common stock, preferred stock or other securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants and procedures by which those numbers may be adjusted;
·the exercise price of the warrants, including any provisions for changes or adjustments to the exercise price, and terms relating to the currency in which such price is payable;
·the dates or periods during which the warrants are exercisable;
·the designation and terms of any securities with which the warrants are issued as a unit;
·if the warrants are issued as a unit with another security, the date on or after which the warrants and the other security will be separately transferable;
·any minimum or maximum amount of warrants that may be exercised at any one time;
·any terms relating to the modification of the warrants;
·a discussion of material federal income tax considerations, if applicable; and
·any other terms of the warrants and any other securities sold together with the warrants, including, but not limited to, the terms, procedures and limitations relating to the transferability, exchange, exercise or redemption of the warrants.

 

The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the specific terms of any warrant units.

 

The descriptions of the warrants in this prospectus and in any prospectus supplement are summaries of the material provisions of the applicable warrant agreements. These descriptions do not restate those agreements in their entirety and do not contain all of the information that you may find useful. We urge you to read the applicable agreements because they, and not the summaries, define many of your rights as holders of the warrants or any warrant units. For more information, please review the form of the relevant agreements, which will be filed with the SEC promptly after the offering of warrants or warrant units and will be available as described under the heading “Where You Can Find Additional Information.”

 

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

 

We may issue debt securities, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. The senior debt securities will rank equally with any other unsubordinated debt that we may have and may be secured or unsecured. The subordinated debt securities will be subordinate and junior in right of payment, to the extent and in the manner described in the instrument governing the debt, to all or some portion of our senior indebtedness. Any convertible debt securities that we may issue will be convertible into or exchangeable for common stock, preferred stock or other securities of ours or of a third party. Conversion may be mandatory or at your option and would be at prescribed conversion rates.

 

The debt securities will be issued under one or more indentures between us and U.S. Bank National Association, as trustee. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any debt securities that we may offer in more detail in a prospectus supplement (and any free writing prospectus).

 

We will issue the senior notes under the senior indenture which we will enter into with the trustee. We will issue the subordinated notes under the subordinated indenture which we will enter into with the trustee. We have filed forms of these documents as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. We use the term “indentures” to refer to both the senior indenture and the subordinated indenture.

 

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The indentures will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended.

 

The following summaries of the material provisions of the senior notes, the subordinated notes and the indentures, together with the additional information we may include in any applicable prospectus supplements, does not purport to be complete and is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, all of the provisions of the forms of indenture filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is part, as it may be supplemented, amended or modified from time to time, as well as the indentures, notes and supplemental agreements relating to each series of debt securities that will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement that includes this prospectus or as exhibits to a current report on Form 8-K if we offer debt securities. You should read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the series of debt securities being offered, as well as the complete indentures that contain the terms of the debt securities. Except as we may otherwise indicate, the terms of the senior indenture and the subordinated indenture are identical.

 

The following are some of the terms relating to a series of debt securities that could be described in a prospectus supplement:

 

·title;
·principal amount being offered, and, if a series, the total amount authorized and the total amount outstanding;
·any limit on the amount that may be issued;
·whether we will issue the series of debt securities in global form and, if so, the terms and who the depositary will be;
·maturity date;
·principal amount due at maturity, and whether the debt securities will be issued with any original issue discount;
·whether and under what circumstances, if any, we will pay additional amounts on any debt securities held by a person who is not a United States person for tax purposes, and whether we can redeem the debt securities if we have to pay such additional amounts;
·annual interest rate, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate, the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;
·whether the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;
·terms of the subordination of any series of subordinated debt;
·place where payments will be payable;
·restrictions on transfer, sale or other assignment, if any;
·our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;
·date, if any, after which, the conditions upon which, and the price at which we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions, and any other applicable terms of those redemption provisions;
·provisions for a sinking fund, purchase or other analogous fund, if any;
·date, if any, on which, and the price at which we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option to purchase, the series of debt securities;
·whether the indenture will restrict our ability or the ability of our subsidiaries to:

 

oincur additional indebtedness;
oissue additional securities;
ocreate liens;
opay dividends or make distributions in respect of our capital stock or the capital stock of our subsidiaries;
oredeem capital stock;
oplace restrictions on our subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends, make distributions or transfer assets;
omake investments or other restricted payments;
osell or otherwise dispose of assets;

 

 - 8 - 

 

 

oenter into sale-leaseback transactions;
oengage in transactions with shareholders or affiliates;
oissue or sell stock of our subsidiaries; or
oeffect a consolidation or merger;

 

·whether the indenture will require us to maintain any interest coverage, fixed charge, cash flow-based, asset-based or other financial ratios;
·a discussion of any material or special United States federal income tax considerations applicable to the debt securities;
·information describing any book-entry features;
·procedures for any auction or remarketing, if any;
·whether the debt securities are to be offered at a price such that they will be deemed to be offered at an “original issue discount” as defined in paragraph (a) of Section 1273 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended;
·denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $2,000 and any integral multiple of $1,000 in excess thereof;
·if other than dollars, the currency in which the series of debt securities will be denominated; and
·any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities, including any events of default that are in addition to those described in this prospectus or any covenants provided with respect to the debt securities that are in addition to those described above, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of the debt securities.

 

Conversion or Exchange Rights

 

We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus the terms on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for common stock, preferred stock or other securities of ours, including the conversion or exchange rate, as applicable, or how it will be calculated, and the applicable conversion or exchange period. We will include provisions as to whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of our securities that the holders of the series of debt securities receive upon conversion or exchange would, under the circumstances described in those provisions, be subject to adjustment, or pursuant to which those holders would, under those circumstances, receive other property upon conversion or exchange, for example in the event of our merger or consolidation with another entity.

 

Consolidation, Merger or Sale

 

The terms of any securities that we may offer pursuant to this prospectus may limit our ability to merge or consolidate or otherwise sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets, which terms would be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement and supplemental indenture. Any successor of ours or acquiror of such assets would have to assume all of our obligations under the indentures and the debt securities, as appropriate.

 

If the debt securities are convertible for our other securities, the person with whom we consolidate or merge or to whom we sell all of our property would have to make provisions for the conversion of the debt securities into securities that the holders of the debt securities would have received if they had converted the debt securities before the consolidation, merger or sale.

 

Events of Default Under the Indenture

 

The following are events of default under the indentures to be filed as exhibits to an amendment to the registration statement with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

 

·if we fail to pay interest when due and payable and our failure continues for 30 days and the time for payment has not been extended or deferred;

 

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·if we fail to pay the principal or premium, if any, when due and payable and the time for payment has not been extended or deferred;
·if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant contained in the debt securities or the indentures, and our failure continues for 60 days after we receive notice from the trustee or holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and
·if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur.

 

If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series occurs and is continuing, other than an event of default specified in the last bullet point above, the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series, by notice to us in writing, and to the trustee if notice is given by such holders, may declare the unpaid principal of, premium, if any, and accrued interest, if any, due and payable immediately. If an event of default specified in the last bullet point above occurs with respect to us, the principal amount of and accrued interest, if any, of each issue of debt securities then outstanding would be due and payable without any notice or other action on the part of the trustee or any holder.

 

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of an affected series may waive any default or event of default with respect to the series and its consequences, except defaults or events of default regarding payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, unless we have cured the default or event of default in accordance with the indenture. Any waiver shall cure the default or event of default.

 

Subject to the terms of the indentures, if an event of default under an indenture occurs and continues, the trustee would be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the trustee indemnity satisfactory to the trustee. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:

 

·the direction so given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture, nor subject the trustee to a risk of personal liability in respect of which the trustee has not received indemnification satisfactory to it in its sole discretion against all losses, liabilities and expenses caused by taking or not taking such action; and
·the trustee may take any other action deemed proper by the trustee which is not inconsistent with such direction.

 

A holder of the debt securities of any series will have the right to institute a proceeding under the indentures or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies only if:

 

·the holder has given written notice to the trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;
·the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request, and such holders have offered indemnity satisfactory to the trustee to institute the proceeding as trustee; and
·the trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series other conflicting directions within 60 days after the notice, request and offer.

 

These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities.

 

We will periodically file statements with the trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the indentures.

 

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Supplemental Indentures

 

We and the trustee may from time to time and at any time enter into an indenture or supplemental indenture without the consent of any holders for one or more of the following purposes:

 

·to evidence the succession of another corporation, and the assumption by the successor corporation of our covenants, agreements and obligations under the indenture and debt securities;
·to add to our covenants such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the protection of the holders, and to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and continuance, of a default in any of such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default;
·to modify, eliminate or add to any of the provisions of the indenture to such extent as necessary to effect the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act, and to add to the indenture such other provisions as may be expressly permitted by the Trust Indenture Act, excluding however, the provisions referred to in Section 316(a)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act;
·to cure any ambiguity or to correct or supplement any provision contained in the indenture or in any supplemental indenture which may be defective or inconsistent with other provisions;
·to make provisions in regard to matters or questions arising under the indenture, so long such other provisions to do not adversely affect the interest of any other holder of debt securities in any material respect;
·to secure any series of security;
·to evidence and provide for the acceptance and appointment of a successor trustee and to add or change any provisions of the indenture as necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trust by more than one trustee; and
·to establish the form or terms of securities of any series as permitted under the indenture, including any subordination provisions.

 

In addition, we and the trustee, with the consent of the holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal of the outstanding debt securities of each series that is affected, may from time to time and at any time enter into an indenture or supplemental indenture for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner the rights of the holders of the securities of such series and any related coupons of the indenture, provided that no such supplemental indenture shall:

 

·extend the fixed maturity of any securities, or reduce the principal amount thereof or premium, if any, or reduce the rate or extend the time of payment of interest, without the extent of the holder so affected;
·reduce the aforesaid percentage of securities, the consent of the holders of which is required for any such supplemental indenture, without the consent of all holders of outstanding series of debt securities; or
·modify any of the above provisions.

 

Discharge

 

Each indenture will provide that we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for specified obligations, including obligations to:

 

·register the transfer or exchange of debt securities of the series;
·replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities of the series;
·maintain paying agencies; and
·hold monies for payment in trust.

 

In order to exercise our rights to be discharged, we must deposit with the trustee money or government obligations, or a combination thereof, sufficient to pay all the principal of, any premium and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.

 

Form, Exchange and Transfer

 

We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, in denominations of $2,000 and any integral multiple of $1,000 in excess thereof. The indentures will provide that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company or another depositary named by us and identified in a prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus with respect to that series.

 

 - 11 - 

 

 

At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, the holder of the debt securities of any series can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.

 

Subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange, we will make no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.

 

We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.

 

If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:

 

·issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of any series being redeemed in part during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of sending of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of such transmission; or
·register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.

 

Information Concerning the Trustee

 

The trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under an indenture, undertakes to perform only those duties as are specifically set forth in the applicable indenture. Upon an event of default under an indenture, the trustee must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to this provision, the trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given it by an indenture at the request of any holder of debt securities unless it is offered security and indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur.

 

Payment and Paying Agents

 

Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.

 

We will pay principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that, unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, we may make interest payments by check which we will mail to the holder or by wire transfer to certain holders. Unless we otherwise indicate in a prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, we will designate an office or agency of the trustee in the contiguous United States as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.

 

 - 12 - 

 

 

All money we pay to a paying agent or the trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities which remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the debt security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.

 

Governing Law

 

The indentures and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 is applicable.

 

Subordination of Subordinated Debt Securities

 

The subordinated debt securities will be subordinate and junior in priority of payment to certain of our other indebtedness to the extent described in a prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus. The indentures in the forms initially filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part do not limit the amount of indebtedness which we may incur, including senior indebtedness or subordinated indebtedness, and do not limit us from issuing any other debt, including secured debt or unsecured debt.

 

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

 

As specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, we may issue units comprised of one or more of the other securities described in this prospectus in any combination. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. The prospectus supplement will describe:

 

·the designation and terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances the securities comprising the units may be held or transferred separately;
·the terms of any unit agreement governing the units;
·the provisions for the payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units;
·material federal income tax considerations, if applicable; and
·whether the units will be issued in fully registered or global form.

 

The descriptions of the units and any applicable underlying security or pledge arrangements in this prospectus and in any prospectus supplement are summaries of the material provisions of the applicable agreements. These descriptions do not restate those agreements in their entirety and may not contain all the information that you may find useful. We urge you to read the applicable agreements because they, and not the summaries, define many of your rights as holders of the units. For more information, please review the form of the relevant agreements, which will be filed with the SEC promptly after the offering of units and will be available as described under the heading “Where You Can Find Additional Information.”

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

Securities Offered by Us

 

We may sell the securities from time to time pursuant to underwritten public offerings, negotiated transactions, block trades, “at the market” offerings as defined in Rule 415 promulgated under the Securities Act or a combination of these methods. We may sell the securities to or through underwriters or dealers, through agents, or directly to one or more purchasers.

 

We may distribute securities from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

·at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;
·at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;
·at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or
·at negotiated prices.

 

Unless stated otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the obligations of any underwriter to purchase securities will be subject to certain conditions, and an underwriter will be obligated to purchase all of the applicable securities if any are purchased. If a dealer is used in a sale, we may sell the securities to the dealer as principal. The dealer may then resell the securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by the dealer at the time of resale.

 

We or our agents may solicit offers to purchase securities from time to time. Unless stated otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, any agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment.

 

In connection with the sale of securities, underwriters or agents may receive compensation (in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions) from us or from purchasers of securities for whom they may act as agents. Underwriters may sell securities to or through dealers, and such dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from the underwriters and/or commissions from the purchasers for whom they may act as agents. Underwriters, dealers and agents that participate in the distribution of securities may be deemed to be underwriters, as that term is defined in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and any discounts or commissions received by them from us and any profits on the resale of the securities by them may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions under the Securities Act. We will identify any such underwriter or agent, and we will describe any compensation paid to them, in the related prospectus supplement.

 

Underwriters, dealers and agents may be entitled under agreements with us to indemnification against and contribution toward certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

 

If stated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize agents and underwriters to solicit offers by certain specified institutions or other persons to purchase securities at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement under delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. Institutions with which these contracts may be made include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions, and other institutions, but shall in all cases be subject to our approval. These contracts will be subject only to those conditions set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement and the applicable prospectus supplement will set forth the commission payable for solicitation of these contracts. The obligations of any purchaser under any such contract will be subject to the condition that the purchase of the securities shall not be prohibited at the time of delivery under the laws of the jurisdiction to which the purchaser is subject. The underwriters and other agents will not have any responsibility in respect of the validity or performance of these contracts.

 

There is no established trading market for any security other than our common stock, which is listed on the NASDAQ Global Market (“NASDAQ”) under the symbol “RILY”, our 7.50% Senior Notes due 2021, listed on NASDAQ under the symbol “RILYL”, our 7.50% Senior Notes due 2027, listed on NASDAQ under the symbol “RILYZ”, and our 7.25% Senior notes due 2027, listed on NASDAQ under the symbol “RILYG”. The securities issued under this registration statement may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange or traded in the over-the-counter market, as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. No assurance can be given as to the liquidity of the trading market for any of our securities. Any underwriter may make a market in these securities. However, no underwriter will be obligated to do so, and any underwriter may discontinue any market making at any time, without prior notice.

 

 - 14 - 

 

 

If underwriters or dealers are used in the sale, until the distribution of the securities is completed, SEC rules may limit the ability of any underwriters and selling group members to bid for and purchase the securities. As an exception to these rules, representatives of any underwriters are permitted to engage in certain transactions that stabilize the price of the securities. These transactions may consist of bids or purchases for the purpose of pegging, fixing or maintaining the price of the securities. If the underwriters create a short position in the applicable securities in connection with any offering (in other words, if they sell more securities than are set forth on the cover page of the applicable prospectus supplement) the representatives of the underwriters may reduce that short position by purchasing securities in the open market. The representatives of the underwriters may also elect to reduce any short position by exercising all or part of any over-allotment option we may grant to the underwriters, as described in the prospectus supplement. The representatives of the underwriters may also impose a penalty bid on certain underwriters and selling group members. This means that if the representatives purchase securities in the open market to reduce the underwriters’ short position or to stabilize the price of the securities, they may reclaim the amount of the selling concession from the underwriters and selling group members who sold those shares as part of the offering.

 

In general, purchases of a security for the purpose of stabilization or to reduce a short position could cause the price of the security to be higher than it might be in the absence of those purchases. The imposition of a penalty bid might also have an effect on the price of the securities to the extent that it discourages resales of the securities. The transactions described above may have the effect of causing the price of the securities to be higher than it would otherwise be. If commenced, the representatives of the underwriters may discontinue any of the transactions at any time. In addition, the representatives of any underwriters may determine not to engage in those transactions or that those transactions, once commenced, may be discontinued without notice.

 

Certain of the underwriters or agents and their associates may engage in transactions with and perform services for us or our affiliates in the ordinary course of their respective businesses.

 

In no event will the commission or discount received by any Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) member or independent broker-dealer participating in a distribution of securities exceed eight percent of the aggregate principal amount of the offering of securities in which that FINRA member or independent broker-dealer participates.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

 

Morrison & Foerster LLP, San Diego, California, has passed upon the validity of the securities to be offered pursuant to this prospectus.

 

EXPERTS

 

Marcum LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2017 and 2016 and for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2017, as well as the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting as of December 31, 2017, as stated in its report incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and such audited consolidated financial statements have been incorporated by reference into this prospectus in reliance upon the report of such firm given upon its authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

The consolidated financial statements of FBR & Co. and its subsidiaries as of December 31, 2016 and 2015 and for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2016 and management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2016 incorporated by reference in this prospectus have been so incorporated in reliance on the reports of BDO USA, LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated herein by reference, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

 

The consolidated financial statements of magicJack VocalTec Ltd. as of December 31, 2017 and 2016 and for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2017 and management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2017 incorporated by reference in this prospectus have been so incorporated in reliance on the reports of BDO USA, LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated herein by reference, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. You may read and copy any document that we file at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549, on official business days during the hours of 10:00 am and 3:00 pm. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the Public Reference Room. All filings we make with the SEC are also available on the SEC’s web site at http://www.sec.gov. Our website addresses are http://www.greatamerican.com, http://www.brileyfin.com and http://www.unitedonline.net. We have not incorporated by reference into this prospectus the information on our websites, and you should not consider it to be a part of this document.

 

We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act with respect to the securities being offered by this prospectus. This prospectus is part of that registration statement. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement or the exhibits to the registration statement. For further information with respect to us and the securities we are offering pursuant to this prospectus, you should refer to the complete registration statement, its exhibits and the information incorporated by reference in the registration statement. Statements contained in this prospectus as to the contents of any contract, agreement or other document referred to are not necessarily complete, and you should refer to the copy of that contract or other documents filed as an exhibit to the registration statement. You may read or obtain a copy of the registration statement at the SEC’s public reference room and website referred to above.

 

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

 

For purposes of this prospectus, the SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” certain information we have filed with the SEC, which means that we are disclosing important information to you by referring you to other information we have filed with the SEC. The information we incorporate by reference is considered part of this prospectus. We specifically are incorporating by reference the following documents filed with the SEC (excluding those portions of any Current Report on Form 8-K that are not deemed “filed” pursuant to the General Instructions of Form 8-K):

 

 - 16 - 

 

 

·Our annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, filed with the SEC on March 14, 2018;
·Our current report Form 8-K/A filed with the SEC on June 28, 2017 and our current reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on November 21, 2017, January 5, 2018, January 16, 2018 and March 20, 2018; and
·Description of our common stock continued in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed on July 7, 2015.

 

All documents we file with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, except as to any portion of any report or documents that is not deemed filed under such provisions, (1) on or after the date of filing of the registration statement containing this prospectus and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement and (2) on or after the date of this prospectus until the earlier of the date on which all of the securities registered hereunder have been sold or the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part has been withdrawn, shall be deemed incorporated by reference in this prospectus and to be a part of this prospectus from the date of filing of those documents.

 

These reports and documents can be accessed free of charge on our website http://www.brileyfin.com by clicking on “Investor Relations” and then clicking on “SEC Filings.” We will provide without charge to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom this prospectus is delivered, upon written or oral request, a copy of any or all documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus, but not delivered with the prospectus, other than exhibits to such documents unless such exhibits are specifically incorporated by reference into the documents that this prospectus incorporates. Please send written requests to:

 

21255 Burbank Boulevard, Suite 400

Woodland Hills, California 91367

Attn.: Chief Financial Officer

 

You should rely only on the information incorporated by reference or provided in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone else to provide you with different information. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front page of those documents.

 

 - 17 - 

 

 

PART II

 

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

 

Item 14. Other Expenses Of Issuance And Distribution

 

The following table sets forth an estimate of the costs and expenses relating to the offering of the securities being registered, other than underwriting discounts and commissions, all of which shall be borne by the Registrant. All of such fees and expenses, except for the SEC registration fee, are estimated:

 

SEC Registration Fee  $31,125 
FINRA Fee   38,000 
Legal Fees and Expenses(1)   45,000 
Accounting Fees and Expenses(1)   25,000 
Transfer Agent and Registrar Fees and Expenses(1)   0 
Printing and Engraving Fees(1)   2,500 
Miscellaneous   0 
Total  $141,625 

 

(1)Does not include expenses of preparing prospectus supplements and other expenses related to offering particular securities.

 

Item 15. Indemnification Of Directors And Officers

 

Section 145 of the DGCL provides, in general, that a corporation incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware, such as us, may indemnify any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding (other than a derivative action by or in the right of the corporation) by reason of the fact that such person is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another enterprise, against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection with such action, suit or proceeding if such person acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe such person’s conduct was unlawful. In the case of a derivative action, a Delaware corporation may indemnify any such person against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection with the defense or settlement of such action or suit if such person acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, except that no indemnification will be made in respect of any claim, issue or matter as to which such person will have been adjudged to be liable to the corporation unless and only to the extent that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware or any other court in which such action was brought determines such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses.

 

Our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws, each as amended, provide that we will indemnify our directors, officers, employees and agents to the extent and in the manner permitted by the provisions of the DGCL, as amended from time to time, subject to any permissible expansion or limitation of such indemnification, as may be set forth in any stockholders’ or directors’ resolution or by contract.

 

We also have director and officer indemnification agreements with each of our executive officers and directors that provide, among other things, for the indemnification to the fullest extent permitted or required by Delaware law, provided that such indemnitee shall not be entitled to indemnification in connection with any proceedings or claims initiated or brought voluntarily by the indemnitee and not by way of defense, unless (i) such indemnification is expressly required to be made by law, (ii) the proceeding was authorized by our Board of Directors, (iii) indemnification is provided by us, in our sole discretion, pursuant to powers vested in us under the DGCL, or (iv) the proceeding is brought to establish or enforce a right to indemnification under the indemnification agreement or any other statute or law or otherwise as required under Section 145 of the DGCL. We are not required to indemnify the indemnitee for any amounts paid in settlement of a proceeding unless we consent to such settlement.

 

 II-1 

 

 

Any repeal or modification of these provisions approved by our stockholders shall be prospective only, and shall not adversely affect any limitation on the liability of a director or officer existing as of the time of such repeal or modification.

 

We have purchased and intend to maintain insurance on our behalf and on behalf of any person who is or was a director or officer against any loss arising from any claim asserted against him or her and incurred by him or her in that capacity, subject to certain exclusions and limits of the amount of coverage.

 

Item 16. Exhibits

 

(a) The following exhibits are filed herewith or incorporated by reference:

 

EXHIBIT INDEX

 

Exhibit
Number
  Description
1.1   Form of Underwriting Agreement.**
2.1   Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated November 9, 2017, by and among B. Riley Financial, Inc., B. R. Acquisition Ltd. and magicJack VocalTec Ltd. (incorporated by reference to the registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on November 9, 2017).***
2.2   Merger Agreement, dated as of May 17, 2017, by and among B. Riley Financial, Inc., Foxhound Merger Sub, Inc., Wunderlich Investment Company, Inc. and the Stockholder Representative (incorporated by reference to the registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on May 18, 2017).***
4.1   Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, dated as of August 17, 2015 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Current Report on Form 8-K filed by the registrant with the Commission on August 18, 2015).
4.2   Amended and Restated Bylaws (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.6 to the Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed by the registrant with the Commission on November 6, 2014).
4.3   Form of Common Stock Certificate (Incorporated by reference to the registrant’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on March 30, 2015).
4.4   Form of Warrant Agreement (including form of warrant).**
4.5   Form of Unit Agreement (including form of unit certificate).**
4.6   Form of Certificate of Designation with respect to shares of Preferred Stock.**
4.7   Indenture for Senior Securities.*
4.8   Indenture for Subordinated Securities.*
4.9   Form of Senior Note.**
4.10   Form of Subordinated Note.**
4.11   Base Indenture dated as of November 2, 2016 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Current Report on Form 8-K filed by the registrant with the Commission on November 2, 2016).
4.12   First Supplemental Indenture Form of 7.50% Senior Note due 2021 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.2 to the Current Report on Form 8-K filed by the registrant with the Commission on November 2, 2016).
4.13   Second Supplemental Indenture Form of 7.50% Senior Note due 2027 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Current Report on Form 8-K filed by the registrant with the Commission on May 31, 2017).

 

 II-2 

 

 

4.14   Third Supplemental Indenture Form of 7.25% Senior Note due 2027 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Current Report on Form 8-K filed by the registrant with the Commission on December 13, 2017).
5.1   Opinion of Morrison & Foerster LLP regarding the legality of the securities being registered.*
12.1   Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges.*
23.1   Consent of Marcum LLP.*
23.2   Consent of BDO USA, LLP, Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm of FBR & Co.*
23.3   Consent of BDO USA, LLP, Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm of magicJack VocalTec Ltd.*
23.4   Consent of Morrison & Foerster LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1).*
24   Powers of Attorney of directors and certain officers of the Registrant (included on signature page).*
25.1   Statement of eligibility on Form T-1 for U.S. Bank National Association.*

 

*Filed herewith.
**To be filed by an amendment or as an exhibit to a document filed under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and incorporated by reference herein.
***Schedules omitted pursuant to Item 601(b)(2) of Regulation S-K. The Company agrees to furnish supplementally a copy of any omitted schedule to the SEC upon request.

 

Item 17. Undertakings

 

(a) The registrant hereby undertakes:

 

(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement to:

 

(i) include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

 

(ii) reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) (§230.424(b) of this chapter) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

 

(iii) include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement.

 

Provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and (a) (1)(iii) of this section do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

 

(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

 II-3 

 

 

(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

(4) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:

 

(i) Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

(ii) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

 

(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

(i) Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

(ii) Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

 

(iii) The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

 

(iv) Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

 

(b) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

 II-4 

 

 

(c) Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

(d) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that:

 

(1) For purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of this registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in a form of prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b) (1) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of this registration statement as of the time it was declared effective.

 

(2) For the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(e) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the SEC under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

 II-5 

 

 

SIGNATURES

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Woodland Hills, State of California, on March 20, 2018.

 

  B. RILEY FINANCIAL, INC.
   

  By: /s/ Phillip J. Ahn

  Name:  Phillip J. Ahn
  Title:  Chief Financial Officer and
  Chief Operating Officer

 

POWER OF ATTORNEY

 

KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints Bryant R. Riley and Phillip J. Ahn as his or her true and lawful attorneys-in-fact and agents, each with full power of substitution and resubstitution, for him or her and in his or her name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to this registration statement and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto and all documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agent full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in and about the premises, as fully to all intents and purposes as he might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that such attorneys-in-fact and agent or his substitute or substitutes, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this registration statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

SIGNATURE   TITLE   DATE
         
/s/ Bryant R. Riley   Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board   March 20, 2018
Bryant R. Riley   (Principal Executive Officer)    
         
/s/ Phillip J. Ahn   Chief Financial Officer and Chief Operating Officer   March 20, 2018
Phillip J. Ahn   (Principal Financial Officer)    
         
/s/ Howard E. Weitzman   Chief Accounting Officer   March 20, 2018
Howard E. Weitzman   (Principal Accounting Officer)    
         
/s/ Robert D’Agostino   Director   March 20, 2018
Robert D’Agostino        
         
/s/ Andrew Gumaer   Director   March 20, 2018
Andrew Gumaer        
         
/s/ Thomas J. Kelleher   Director   March 20, 2018
Thomas J. Kelleher        
         
/s/ Todd D. Sims   Director   March 20, 2018
Todd D. Sims        
         
/s/ Richard L. Todaro   Director   March 20, 2018
Richard L. Todaro        
         
/s/ Mikel H. Williams   Director   March 20, 2018
Mikel H. Williams        
         
/s/ Robert L. Antin   Director   March 20, 2018
Robert L. Antin        
         
/s/ Michael J. Sheldon   Director   March 20 2018
Michael J. Sheldon        
         
/s/ Gary K. Wunderlich, Jr.   Director   March 20, 2018
Gary K. Wunderlich, Jr.        

  

 

Exhibit 4.7

 

B. RILEY FINANCIAL, INC.

 

and

 

U.S. BANK NATIONAL ASSOCIATION, 

as Trustee

 

INDENTURE

 

Dated as of  , 20  

 

SENIOR DEBT SECURITIES

 

 

 

 

CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE

 

     

TIA Section

  Indenture Section
     
310 (a)(1)   6.9
(a)(2)   6.9
(a)(3)   N/A
(a)(4)   N/A
(a)(5)   6.9
(b)   6.8; 6.9
311 (a)   6.13
(b)   6.13
312 (a)   7.1
(b)   7.2
(c)   7.2
313 (a)   7.3
(b)(1)   7.3
(b)(2)   7.3
(c)   7.3
(d)   7.3
314 (a)   7.4
(b)   N/A
(c)(1)   1.2
(c)(2)   1.2
(c)(3)   N/A
(d)   N/A
(e)   1.2
(f)   1.2
315 (a)   6.1
(b)   6.2
(c)   6.1
(d)   6.1;6.3
(e)   5.14
316 (a) (last sentence)   1.1(“Outstanding”)
(a)(1)(A)   5.12
(a)(1)(B)   5.13
(a)(2)   N/A
(b)   5.8
(c)   9.2
317 (a)(1)   5.3
(a)(2)   5.4
(b)   10.3
318 (a)   1.7

 

N/A means Not Applicable

 

Note: This Cross-Reference Table shall not, for any purpose, be deemed to be part of this Indenture.

 

-i

 

 

Table of Contents

 

    Page
ARTICLE I  DEFINITIONS AND OTHER PROVISIONS OF GENERAL APPLICATION 1
  Section 1.1. Definitions 1
  Section 1.2. Compliance Certificates and Opinions 6
  Section 1.3. Form of Documents Delivered to Trustee 6
  Section 1.4. Acts of Holders 6
  Section 1.5. Notices, Etc., to Trustee or Company 7
  Section 1.6. Notice to Holders; Waiver 8
  Section 1.7. Conflict with Trust Indenture Act 9
  Section 1.8. Effect of Headings and Table of Contents 9
  Section 1.9. Successors and Assigns 9
  Section 1.10. Separability Clause 9
  Section 1.11. Benefits of Indenture 9
  Section 1.12. Governing Law; Waiver of Jury Trial 9
  Section 1.13. Legal Holidays 9
  Section 1.14. Force Majeure 9
ARTICLE II  SECURITY FORMS 10
  Section 2.1. Forms Generally 10
  Section 2.2. Form of Trustee’s Certificate of Authentication 10
ARTICLE III  THE SECURITIES 10
  Section 3.1. Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series 10
  Section 3.2. Denominations 12
  Section 3.3. Execution, Authentication, Delivery and Dating 12
  Section 3.4. Temporary Securities 14
  Section 3.5. Registration; Registration of Transfer and Exchange 14
  Section 3.6. Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities 16
  Section 3.7. Payment of Interest; Interest Rights Preserved 16
  Section 3.8. Persons Deemed Owners 17
  Section 3.9. Cancellation 17
  Section 3.10. Computation of Interest 18
ARTICLE IV  SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE 18
  Section 4.1. Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture 18
  Section 4.2. Application of Trust Money 19
ARTICLE V  REMEDIES 19
  Section 5.1. Events of Default 19
  Section 5.2. Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment 20
  Section 5.3. Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee 21
  Section 5.4. Trustee May File Proofs of Claim 22
  Section 5.5. Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities 22
  Section 5.6. Application of Money Collected 23
  Section 5.7. Limitation on Suits 23
  Section 5.8. Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal, Premium and Interest 23
  Section 5.9. Restoration of Rights and Remedies 24
  Section 5.10. Rights and Remedies Cumulative 24
  Section 5.11. Delay or Omission Not Waiver 24

 

-i

 

 

Table of Contents

(Continued)

 

    Page
  Section 5.12. Control by Holders 24
  Section 5.13. Waiver of Past Defaults 25
  Section 5.14. Undertaking for Costs 25
  Section 5.15. Waiver of Usury, Stay or Extension Laws 25
ARTICLE VI  THE TRUSTEE 26
  Section 6.1. Certain Duties and Responsibilities 26
  Section 6.2. Notice of Defaults 26
  Section 6.3. Certain Rights of Trustee 27
  Section 6.4. Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance of Securities 28
  Section 6.5. May Hold Securities 28
  Section 6.6. Money Held in Trust 28
  Section 6.7. Compensation and Reimbursement 28
  Section 6.8. Disqualification; Conflicting Interests 29
  Section 6.9. Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility 30
  Section 6.10. Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor 30
  Section 6.11. Acceptance of Appointment by Successor 31
  Section 6.12. Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business 32
  Section 6.13. Preferential Collection of Claims 32
  Section 6.14. Appointment of Authenticating Agent 32
ARTICLE VII  HOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY TRUSTEE AND COMPANY 33
  Section 7.1. Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Holders 33
  Section 7.2. Preservation of Information; Communications to Holders 34
  Section 7.3. Reports by Trustee 34
  Section 7.4. Reports by Company 34
ARTICLE VIII  CONSOLIDATION, MERGER, CONVEYANCE, TRANSFER OR LEASE 35
  Section 8.1. Company May Consolidate, Etc., Only on Certain Terms 35
  Section 8.2. Successor Substituted 35
ARTICLE IX  SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES 36
  Section 9.1. Supplemental Indentures Without Consent of Holders 36
  Section 9.2. Supplemental Indentures with Consent of Holders 36
  Section 9.3. Execution of Supplemental Indentures 37
  Section 9.4. Effect of Supplemental Indentures 37
  Section 9.5. Conformity with Trust Indenture Act 38
  Section 9.6. Reference in Securities to Supplemental Indentures 38
ARTICLE X  COVENANTS 38
  Section 10.1. Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest 38
  Section 10.2. Maintenance of Office or Agency 38
  Section 10.3. Money for Securities Payments to Be Held in Trust 38
  Section 10.4. Corporate Existence 39
  Section 10.5. [Reserved] 39
  Section 10.6. Statement by Officer as to Default 39
ARTICLE XI  REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES 40
  Section 11.1. Applicability of Article 40
  Section 11.2. Election to Redeem; Notice to Trustee 40

 

-ii

 

 

Table of Contents

(Continued)

 

    Page
  Section 11.3. Selection by Trustee of Securities to Be Redeemed 40
  Section 11.4. Notice of Redemption 40
  Section 11.5. Deposit of Redemption Price 41
  Section 11.6. Securities Payable on Redemption Date 41
  Section 11.7. Securities Redeemed in Part 42
ARTICLE XII  SINKING FUNDS 42
  Section 12.1. Applicability of Article 42
  Section 12.2. Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities 42
  Section 12.3. Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund 42
ARTICLE XIII  DEFEASANCE AND COVENANT DEFEASANCE 43
  Section 13.1. Applicability of Article; Company’s Option to Effect Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance 43
  Section 13.2. Defeasance and Discharge 43
  Section 13.3. Covenant Defeasance 43
  Section 13.4. Conditions to Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance 44
  Section 13.5. Deposited Money and U.S. Government Obligations to Be Held in Trust; Other Miscellaneous Provisions 45

 

-iii

 

 

INDENTURE, dated as of , 20 , between B. Riley Financial, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and U.S. Bank National Association, a national banking association, as trustee (the “Trustee”).

 

RECITALS OF THE COMPANY

 

The Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance from time to time of its unsecured senior debentures, notes or other evidences of indebtedness (herein called the “Securities”), to be issued in one or more series as in this Indenture provided.

 

All things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company, in accordance with its terms, have been done.

 

NOW, THEREFORE, THIS INDENTURE WITNESSETH:

 

For and in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the Holders thereof, it is mutually covenanted and agreed, for the equal and proportionate benefit of all Holders of the Securities or of any series thereof, as follows:

 

ARTICLE I

DEFINITIONS AND OTHER PROVISIONS OF GENERAL APPLICATION

 

Section 1.1. Definitions.

 

For all purposes of this Indenture, except as otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires:

 

  (1) the terms defined in this Article I have the meanings assigned to them in this Article I and include the plural as well as the singular;

 

  (2) all other terms used herein which are defined in the Trust Indenture Act, either directly or by reference therein, have the meanings assigned to them therein;

 

  (3) all accounting terms not otherwise defined herein have the meanings assigned to them in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and, except as otherwise herein expressly provided, the term “generally accepted accounting principles” with respect to any computation required or permitted hereunder shall mean such accounting principles as are generally accepted at the date of such computation;

 

  (4) the words “herein”, “hereof” and “hereunder” and other words of similar import refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision;

 

  (5) any reference to an “Article” or a “Section” refers to an Article or a Section, as the case may be, of this Indenture.

 

“Act”, when used with respect to any Holder, has the meaning specified in Section 1.4(a).

 

“Affiliate” of any specified Person means any other Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by, or under direct or indirect common control with, such specified Person. For the purposes of this definition, “control” when used with respect to any specified Person means the power to direct the management and policies of such Person, directly or indirectly, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by contract or otherwise; and the terms “controlling” and “controlled” have meanings correlative to the foregoing.

 

1 

 

 

“Authenticating Agent” means any Person authorized by the Trustee to act on behalf of the Trustee to authenticate Securities of one or more series.

 

“Board of Directors” means the board of directors of the Company or any duly authorized committee of such board.

 

“Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification, and delivered to the Trustee.

 

“Business Day” means, for any place where the principal and interest on the Notes is payable, each Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday which is not a day in which banking institutions in New York are authorized or obligated by law or executive order to close.

 

“Capital Stock” for any corporation means any and all shares, interests, rights to purchase, warrants, options, participations or other equivalents of or interests in (however designated) stock issued by that corporation.

 

“Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission, as from time to time constituted, created under the Exchange Act or, if at any time after the execution of this instrument such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act, then the body performing such duties at such time.

 

“Company” means the Person named as the “Company” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor Person shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Company” shall mean such successor Person.

 

“Company Request” or “Company Order” means a written request or order signed in the name of the Company by any Officer.

 

“Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which at any particular time its corporate trust business shall be principally administered, which office, as at the date of this Indenture, is located at U.S. Bank National Association, 633 West Fifth Street, 24th Floor, Los Angeles, California 90071, Attention: P. Oswald (B. Riley Financial, Inc.), or such other address as the Trustee may designate from time to time by notice to the Holders and the Company, or the principal corporate trust office of any successor Trustee (or such other address as such successor Trustee may designate from time to time by notice to the Holders and the Company).

 

“corporation” includes corporations, associations, companies (including limited liability companies) and business trusts.

 

“covenant defeasance” has the meaning specified in Section 13.3.

 

“default”, when used in Section 6.2, has the meaning specified in Section 6.2.

 

“Defaulted Interest” has the meaning specified in Section 3.7(b).

 

“defeasance” has the meaning specified in Section 13.2.

 

“Depositary” means, with respect to the Securities of any series issuable or issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, the Person designated as Depositary for such series by the Company pursuant to Section 3.1(b)(15), which Person shall be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act; and if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Depositary” as used with respect to the Securities of any series shall mean the Depositary with respect to the Securities of such series.

 

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“Event of Default” has the meaning specified in Section 5.1.

 

“Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and any statute successor thereto, in each case, as amended.

 

“Global Security” or “Global Securities” means a Security or Securities, as the case may be, evidencing all or part of a series of Securities, issued to the Depositary for such series or its nominee, and registered in the name of such Depositary or nominee.

 

“Holder” means a Person in whose name a Security is registered in the Security Register.

 

“Indebtedness” of any Person means indebtedness for borrowed money and indebtedness under purchase money mortgages or other purchase money liens or conditional sales or similar title retention agreements, in each case where such indebtedness has been created, incurred, or assumed by such Person to the extent such indebtedness would appear as a liability upon a balance sheet of such Person prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles as in effect on the date hereof, guarantees by such Person of such indebtedness, and indebtedness for borrowed money secured by any mortgage, pledge or other lien or encumbrance upon property owned by such Person, even though such Person has not assumed or become liable for the payment of such indebtedness (but not exceeding the amount of indebtedness secured by such mortgage, pledge, lien or encumbrance).

 

“Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed or as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into pursuant to the applicable provisions hereof and shall include the terms of particular series of Securities established as contemplated by Section 3.1.

 

“interest”, when used with respect to an Original Issue Discount Security which by its terms bears interest only after Maturity, means interest payable after Maturity.

 

“Interest Payment Date”, when used with respect to any Security, means the Stated Maturity of an installment of interest on such Security.

 

“Market Exchange Rate” has the meaning specified in Section 1.4(f).

 

“Maturity”, when used with respect to any Security, means the date on which the principal of such Security or an installment of principal becomes due and payable as therein or herein provided, whether at the Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, call for redemption or otherwise.

 

“Notice of Default” has the meaning specified in Section 5.1.

 

“Officer” means the Chairman of the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer, the President, Chief Financial Officer, Chief Accounting Officer, any Vice President, the Treasurer, the Secretary or the Controller of the Company.

 

“Officer’s Certificate” means a certificate signed by any Officer. An Officer’s Certificate provided pursuant to Section 10.6 shall be signed by the principal executive, financial or accounting officer of the Company.

 

“Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion of counsel, who may be counsel for the Company (including an employee or officer of the Company or any of its Affiliates) and who shall be reasonably acceptable to the Trustee.

 

“Original Issue Discount Security” means any Security which provides for an amount less than the principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon a declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 5.2.

 

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“Outstanding”, when used with respect to Securities, means, as of the date of determination, all Securities theretofore authenticated and delivered under this Indenture, except:

 

  (i) Securities theretofore canceled by the Trustee or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation;

 

  (ii) Securities for whose payment or redemption money (or in the case of payment by defeasance under Section 13.2, money, U.S. Government Obligations or both) in the necessary amount has been theretofore deposited with the Trustee or any Paying Agent (other than the Company) in trust, or set aside and segregated in trust by the Company (if the Company shall act as its own Paying Agent), for the Holders of such Securities; provided that, if such Securities are to be redeemed, notice of such redemption has been duly given pursuant to this Indenture or provision therefor satisfactory to the Trustee has been made; and provided further, in the case of payment by defeasance under Section 13.2, that all conditions precedent to the application of such Section shall have been satisfied; and

 

  (iii) Securities which have been paid pursuant to Section 3.6 or in exchange for or in lieu of which other Securities have been authenticated and delivered pursuant to this Indenture, other than any such Securities in respect of which there shall have been presented to the Trustee proof satisfactory to it that such Securities are held by a bona fide purchaser in whose hands such Securities are valid obligations of the Company; provided, however, that in determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of the Outstanding Securities have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder, (i) the principal amount of an Original Issue Discount Security that shall be deemed to be Outstanding shall be the amount of the principal thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of such determination upon acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 5.2 and (ii) Securities owned by the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities or any Affiliate of the Company or of such other obligor shall be disregarded and deemed not to be Outstanding, except that, in determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying upon any such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver, only Securities which the Trustee knows to be so owned shall be so disregarded. Securities so owned which have been pledged in good faith may be regarded as Outstanding if the pledgee establishes to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s independent right so to act with respect to such Securities and that the pledgee is not the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities or any Affiliate of the Company or of such other obligor.

 

“Paying Agent” means any Person authorized by the Company to pay the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on any Securities on behalf of the Company.

 

“Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, association, joint-stock company, trust, incorporated or unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof.

 

“Place of Payment”, when used with respect to the Securities of any series, means the place or places where the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on the Securities of that series are payable as specified as contemplated by Section 3.1 or, if not so specified, the City of New York, New York.

 

“Predecessor Security” of any particular Security means every previous Security evidencing all or a portion of the same debt as that evidenced by such particular Security; and, for the purposes of this definition, any Security authenticated and delivered under Section 3.6 in exchange for or in lieu of a mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be deemed to evidence the same debt as the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security.

 

“Redemption Date”, when used with respect to any Security to be redeemed, means the date fixed for such redemption by or pursuant to this Indenture.

 

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“Redemption Price”, when used with respect to any Security to be redeemed, means the price at which it is to be redeemed pursuant to this Indenture.

 

“Regular Record Date” for the interest payable on any Interest Payment Date on the Securities of any series means the date specified for that purpose as contemplated by Section 3.1.

 

“Responsible Officer”, when used with respect to the Trustee, means any officer in the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee with direct responsibility for the administration of this Indenture and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter relating to this Indenture, any other officer to whom such matter is referred because of such person’s knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject and who shall have direct responsibility for the administration of this Indenture.

 

“Securities” has the meaning stated in the first recital of this Indenture and more particularly means any Securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

 

“Security Register” and “Security Registrar” have the respective meanings specified in Section 3.5(a).

 

“Special Record Date” for the payment of any Defaulted Interest means a date fixed by the Trustee pursuant to Section 3.7(b).

 

“Stated Maturity”, when used with respect to any Security or any installment of principal thereof or interest thereon, means the date specified in such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security or such installment of principal or interest is due and payable.

 

“Subsidiary” means with respect to any Person (i) any corporation, association, or other business entity (other than a partnership, joint venture, limited liability company or similar entity) of which more than 50.0% of the total voting power of shares of Capital Stock entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors, managers or trustees thereof is at the time of determination owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by such Person or one or more of the other Subsidiaries of that Person or a combination thereof; and (ii) any partnership, joint venture, limited liability company or similar entity of which (x) more than 50.0% of the capital accounts, distribution rights, total equity and voting interests or general or limited partnership interests, as applicable, are owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by such Person or one or more of the other Subsidiaries of that Person or a combination thereof whether in the form of membership, general, special or limited partnership or otherwise, and (y) such Person or any Subsidiary of such Person is a controlling general partner or otherwise controls such entity.

 

“Trust Indenture Act” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 as in force at the date as of which this instrument was executed, except as provided in Section 9.5 and, to the extent required by any amendment thereto, the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended.

 

“Trustee” means the Person named as the “Trustee” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor Trustee shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Trustee” shall mean or include each Person who is then a Trustee hereunder and, if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any series shall mean the Trustee with respect to Securities of that series.

 

“U.S. Government Obligation” has the meaning set forth in Section 13.4(a).

 

“Vice President” means any vice president, whether or not designated by a number or a word or words added before or after the title “vice president”.

 

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Section 1.2. Compliance Certificates and Opinions.

 

(a) Upon any application or request by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under any provision of this Indenture, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate stating that all conditions precedent, if any, provided for in this Indenture relating to the proposed action have been complied with and an Opinion of Counsel stating that in the opinion of such counsel all such conditions precedent, if any, have been complied with, except that in the case of any such application or request as to which the furnishing of such documents is specifically required by any provision of this Indenture relating to such particular application or request, no additional certificate or opinion need be furnished.

 

(b) Every certificate or opinion with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant provided for in this Indenture (other than certificates provided pursuant to Section 10.6) shall include:

 

(1) a statement that the individual signing such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition and the definitions herein relating thereto;

 

(2) a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based;

 

(3) a statement that, in the opinion of such individual, he or she has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable him or her to express an informed opinion as to whether such covenant or condition has been complied with; and

 

(4) a statement as to whether, in the opinion of such individual, such condition or covenant has been complied with.

 

Section 1.3. Form of Documents Delivered to Trustee.

 

(a) In any case where several matters are required to be certified by, or covered by an opinion of, any specified Person, it is not necessary that all such matters be certified by, or covered by the opinion of, only one such Person, or that they be so certified or covered by only one document, but one such Person may certify or give an opinion with respect to some matters and one or more other such Persons as to other matters, and any such Person may certify or give an opinion as to such matters in one or more documents.

 

(b) Any certificate of any officer of the Company may be based, insofar as it relates to legal matters, upon a certificate or opinion of, or representations by, counsel, unless such officer knows, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know, that the certificate or opinion or representations with respect to the matters upon which his or her certificate or opinion is based are erroneous. Any Opinion of Counsel may be based, insofar as it relates to factual matters, upon a certificate of, or representations by, an officer or officers of the Company stating that the information with respect to such factual matters is in the possession of the Company, unless such counsel knows, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know, that the certificate or representations with respect to such matters are erroneous.

 

(c) Where any Person is required to make, give or execute two or more applications, requests, consents, certificates, statements, opinions or other instruments under this Indenture, they may, but need not, be consolidated and form one instrument.

 

Section 1.4. Acts of Holders.

 

(a) Any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action provided by this Indenture to be given or taken by Holders may be embodied in and evidenced by one or more instruments of substantially similar tenor signed by such Holders in person or by an agent duly appointed in writing; and, except as herein otherwise expressly provided, such action shall become effective when such instrument or instruments are delivered to the Trustee and, where it is hereby expressly required, to the Company. The Trustee shall promptly deliver to the Company copies of any such instrument or instruments delivered to the Trustee. Such instrument or instruments (and the action embodied therein and evidenced thereby) are herein sometimes referred to as the “Act” of the Holders signing such instrument or instruments. Proof of execution of any such instrument or of a writing appointing any such agent shall be sufficient for any purpose of this Indenture and (subject to Section 6.1) conclusive in favor of the Trustee and the Company, if made in the manner provided in this Section 1.4.

 

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(b) The fact and date of the execution by any Person of any such instrument or writing may be proved by the affidavit of a witness of such execution or by a certificate of a notary public or other officer authorized by law to take acknowledgments of deeds, certifying that the individual signing such instrument or writing acknowledged to him the execution thereof. Where such execution is by a signer acting in a capacity other than his or her individual capacity, such certificate or affidavit shall also constitute sufficient proof of his or her authority. The fact and date of the execution of any such instrument or writing, or the authority of the Person executing the same, may also be proved in any other manner which the Trustee deems sufficient; and the Trustee may in any instance require further proof with respect to any of the matters referred to in this Section 1.4.

 

(c) The ownership of Securities shall be proved by the Security Register.

 

(d) Any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other Act of the Holder of any Security shall bind every future Holder of the same Security and the Holder of every Security issued upon the registration of transfer thereof or in exchange therefor or in lieu thereof in respect of anything done, omitted or suffered to be done by the Trustee, the Company in reliance thereon, whether or not notation of such action is made upon such Security or such other Security.

 

(e) The Depositary selected pursuant to subsection (b)(15) of Section 3.1, as a Holder, may appoint agents and otherwise authorize participants to give or take any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action which a Holder is entitled to give or take hereunder.

 

(f) Unless otherwise specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 3.1 of this Indenture with respect to a particular series of Securities, whenever for purposes of this Indenture any action may be taken by the Holders of a specified percentage in aggregate principal amount of Securities of all series or all series affected by a particular action at the time outstanding and, at such time, there are outstanding Securities of any series which are denominated in a coin or currency other than U.S. Dollars, then the principal amount of Securities of such series which shall be deemed to be outstanding for the purpose of taking such action shall be that amount of U.S. Dollars that could be obtained for such amount at the Market Exchange Rate at such time. For purposes of this Section 1.4(f), “Market Exchange Rate” shall mean the noon U.S. Dollar buying rate in The City of New York for cable transfers of that currency as published by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. If such Market Exchange Rate is not available for any reason with respect to such currency, the Trustee shall use, without liability on its part, such quotation of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York or quotations from one or more major banks in The City of New York or in the country of issue of the currency in question or such other quotations as the Company shall deem appropriate and direct the Trustee to use pursuant to a Company Order. The provisions of this paragraph shall apply in determining the equivalent principal amount in respect of Securities of a series denominated in currency other than U.S. Dollars in connection with any action taken by Holders of Securities pursuant to the terms of this Indenture. All decisions and determinations of the Trustee regarding the Market Exchange Rate or any alternative determination provided for in this paragraph shall be in its sole discretion and shall, in the absence of manifest error, be conclusive to the extent permitted by law for all purposes and irrevocably binding upon the Company and all Holders.

 

Section 1.5. Notices, Etc., to Trustee or Company.

 

Any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or Act of Holders or other document provided or permitted by this Indenture to be made upon, given or furnished to, or filed with,

 

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(1) the Trustee by any Holder or by the Company shall be sufficient for every purpose hereunder if made, given, furnished or filed in writing to or with the Trustee at its Corporate Trust Office or sent by facsimile, electronic transmission or first-class mail, postage-prepaid at the address set forth below:

 

  U.S. Bank National Association  
  633 West Fifth Street, 24th Floor  
  Los Angeles, California 90071  
  Attention:      
  Facsimile:      
  E-mail:      
     

(2) the Company by the Trustee or by any Holder shall be sufficient for every purpose hereunder (unless otherwise herein expressly provided) if in writing and sent, to the Company either by facsimile, electronic transmission or first-class mail, postage prepaid at the address set forth below:

 

  B. Riley Financial, Inc.  
  21255 Burbank Blvd, Suite 400  
  Woodland Hills, California 91367  
  Attention:    
  Facsimile:    
  E-mail:    

 

The Company or the Trustee may designate additional or different addresses for subsequent notices or communications.

 

Notices given by first-class mail, postage prepaid, will be deemed given five calendar days after mailing.

 

Section 1.6. Notice to Holders; Waiver.

 

Where this Indenture provides for notice to Holders (including any notice of redemption), such notice shall be sufficiently given (unless otherwise herein expressly provided) if in writing (including facsimile or other electronic transmission) and mailed, first-class postage prepaid, to each Holder entitled thereto, at his last address as it appears in the Security Register or if given to the applicable Depositary (or its designee) according to the applicable procedures of such Depositary. If such notice or communication is mailed (or delivered by electronic transmission in accordance with the applicable procedures of the Depositary) in the manner provided above within the time prescribed herein, it is duly given, whether or not the addressee receives it. In any case where notice to Holders is given, neither the failure to send such notice, nor any defect in any notice so sent, to any particular Holder shall affect the sufficiency of such notice with respect to other Holders. Such notice may be waived in writing by the Person entitled to receive such notice, either before or after the event, and such waiver shall be the equivalent of such notice. Waivers of notice by Holders shall be filed with the Trustee, but such filing shall not be a condition precedent to the validity of any action taken in reliance upon such waiver.

 

Notwithstanding any other provision of this Indenture or any Security, where this Indenture or any Security provides for notice of any event (including any notice of redemption or purchase) to a Holder of a Global Security (whether by mail or otherwise), such notice shall be sufficiently given if given to the Depositary pursuant to the standing instructions from the Depositary.

 

Notices given by first-class mail, postage prepaid, will be deemed given five calendar days after mailing.

 

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Section 1.7. Conflict with Trust Indenture Act.

 

If any provision hereof limits, qualifies or conflicts with another provision hereof which is required to be included in this Indenture by any of the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act, such required provision shall control. If any provision hereof limits, qualifies or conflicts with the duties imposed by Section 318(c) of the Trust Indenture Act such imposed duties shall control. If any provision of the Indenture limits, qualifies or conflicts with a provision of the Trust Indenture Act that is required under the Trust Indenture Act to be a part of and govern the Indenture, such provision of the Trust Indenture Act shall control. If any provision of the Indenture modifies or excludes any provision of the Trust Indenture Act that may be so modified or excluded, the latter provision shall be deemed to apply to the Indenture as such provision of the Trust Indenture Act is so modified or excluded, as the case may be.

 

Section 1.8. Effect of Headings and Table of Contents.

 

The Article and Section headings herein and the Table of Contents are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof.

 

Section 1.9. Successors and Assigns.

 

All covenants and agreements in this Indenture by the Company shall bind its successors and assigns, whether so expressed or not.

 

Section 1.10. Separability Clause.

 

In case any provision in this Indenture or in the Securities shall be invalid, illegal or unenforceable, the validity, legality and enforceability of the remaining provisions shall not in any way be affected or impaired thereby.

 

Section 1.11. Benefits of Indenture.

 

Nothing in this Indenture or in the Securities, express or implied, shall give to any Person, other than the parties hereto and their successors hereunder and the Holders, any benefit or any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under this Indenture.

 

Section 1.12. Governing Law; Waiver of Jury Trial.

 

This Indenture and the Securities shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York. Each of the Company and the Trustee irrevocably waives, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, any and all rights to trial by jury in any legal proceeding arising out of or relating to this Indenture, the Securities, or the transactions contemplated thereby.

 

Section 1.13. Legal Holidays.

 

In any case where any Interest Payment Date, Redemption Date or Stated Maturity of any Security shall not be a Business Day at any Place of Payment, then (notwithstanding any other provision of this Indenture or of the Securities) payment of interest or principal (and premium, if any) need not be made at such Place of Payment on such date, but may be made on the next succeeding Business Day at such Place of Payment with the same force and effect as if made on the Interest Payment Date or Redemption Date, or at the Stated Maturity, provided that no interest shall accrue on the amount then payable for the period from and after such Interest Payment Date, Redemption Date or Stated Maturity, as the case may be.

 

Section 1.14. Force Majeure.

 

In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for any failure or delay in the performance of its obligations under this Indenture arising out of or caused by, directly or indirectly, forces beyond its reasonable control, including without limitation strikes, work stoppages, accidents, acts of war or terrorism, civil or military disturbances, nuclear or natural catastrophes or acts of God, and interruptions, loss or malfunctions of utilities, communications or computer (software or hardware) services.

 

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ARTICLE II

 

SECURITY FORMS

 

Section 2.1. Forms Generally.

 

(a) The Securities of each series shall be in substantially the form as shall be established by or pursuant to a Board Resolution or in one or more indentures supplemental hereto, in each case with such appropriate insertions, omissions, substitutions and other variations as are required or permitted by this Indenture, and may have such letters, numbers or other marks of identification and such legends or endorsements placed thereon as may be required to comply with the rules of any securities exchange or as may, consistently herewith, be determined by the Officer executing such Securities, as evidenced by his or her execution of such Securities. If the form of Securities of any series is established by action taken pursuant to a Board Resolution, a copy of an appropriate record of such action shall be certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company, and delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the delivery of the Company Order contemplated by Section 3.3 for the authentication and delivery of such Securities.

 

(b) The definitive Securities shall be printed, lithographed or engraved on steel engraved borders or may be produced in any other manner, all as determined by the Officer executing such Securities, as evidenced by his or her execution of such Securities.

 

Section 2.2. Form of Trustee’s Certificate of Authentication.

 

The Trustee’s certificates of authentication shall be in substantially the following form:

 

This is one of the Securities of the series designated herein referred to in the within-mentioned Indenture.

 

  U.S. Bank National Association,
as Trustee
     
  By  
  Authorized Signatory

 

ARTICLE III

THE SECURITIES

 

Section 3.1. Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series.

 

(a) The aggregate principal amount of Securities which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited.

 

(b) The Securities may be issued in one or more series. There shall be established in or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and (subject to Section 3.3) set forth or determined as provided in an Officer’s Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto, prior to the issuance of Securities of any series,

 

(1) the title of the Securities of the series (which shall distinguish the Securities of the series from all other Securities);

 

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(2) any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the series which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the series pursuant to Section 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 9.6 or 11.7 and except for any Securities which, pursuant to Section 3.3, are deemed never to have been authenticated and delivered hereunder);

 

(3) the Person to whom any interest on a Security of the series shall be payable, if other than the Person in whose name that Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the Regular Record Date for such interest;

 

(4) the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable and/or the method by which such date or dates shall be determined;

 

(5) the rate or rates (or method for establishing the rate or rates) at which the Securities of the series shall bear interest, if any, the date or dates from which such interest shall accrue, the Interest Payment Dates on which such interest shall be payable and the Regular Record Date for the interest payable on any Interest Payment Date (or method for establishing such date or dates);

 

(6) the place or places where the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on Securities of the series shall be payable;

 

(7) the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;

 

(8) the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase Securities of the series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

(9) if other than denominations of $2,000 and any integral multiple of $1,000 in excess thereof, the denominations in which Securities of the series shall be issuable;

 

(10) if other than the full principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 5.2 or the method by which such portion shall be determined;

 

(11) if other than such coin or currency of the United States of America as at the time of payment is legal tender for payment of public or private debts, the currency or currencies (including composite currencies) in which payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and/or interest on the Securities of the series shall be payable;

 

(12) if the principal of (and premium, if any) and/or interest on the Securities of the series are to be payable, at the election of the Company or any Holder, in a currency or currencies (including composite currencies) other than that in which the Securities are stated to be payable, the period or periods within which, and the terms and conditions, upon which, such election may be made;

 

(13) if the amounts of payments of principal of (and premium, if any) and/or interest on the Securities of the series may be determined with reference to an index, the manner in which such amounts shall be determined;

 

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(14) in the case of Securities of a series the terms of which are not established pursuant to subsection (11), (12) or (13) above, whether either or both of Section 13.2 or Section 13.3 shall not be applicable to the Securities of such series; or, in the case of Securities the terms of which are established pursuant to subsection (11), (12) or (13) above, the adoption and applicability, if any, to such Securities of any terms and conditions similar to those contained in Section 13.2 and/or Section 13.3;

 

(15) whether the Securities of the series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities and, in such case, the Depositary for such Global Security or Securities;

 

(16) any additional or different events of default that apply to Securities of the series, and any change in the right of the Trustee or the Holders of such Securities to declare the principal thereof due and payable;

 

(17) any additional or different covenants that apply to Securities of the series;

 

(18) the form of the Securities of the series; and

 

(19) any other terms of the series (which terms shall not contradict the provisions of this Indenture).

 

(c) All Securities of any one series need not be issued at the same time and may be issued from time to time and, unless otherwise provided, a series may be reopened, without the consent of the Holders, for issuances of additional Notes of such series; provided, however, that if such additional Notes are not fungible with the Notes of such series for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the additional Notes will have a separate CUSIP number.

 

(d) If any of the terms of the series are established by action taken pursuant to a Board Resolution, a copy of an appropriate record of such action shall be certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company and delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the delivery of the Officer’s Certificate setting forth the terms of the series. With respect to Securities of a series constituting a medium term note program, such Board Resolution may provide general terms or parameters for Securities of such series and may provide that the specific terms of particular Securities of such series, and the Persons authorized to determine such terms or parameters, may be determined in accordance with or pursuant to the Company Order referred to in Section 3.3.

 

Section 3.2. Denominations.

 

The Securities of each series shall be issuable in registered form without coupons in such denominations as shall be specified as contemplated by Section 3.1. In the absence of any such provisions with respect to the Securities of any series, the Securities of such series shall be issuable in denominations of $2,000 and any integral multiple of $1,000 in excess thereof.

 

Section 3.3. Execution, Authentication, Delivery and Dating.

 

(a) The Securities shall be executed on behalf of the Company by any Officer. The signature of any such Officer on the Securities may be manual or facsimile.

 

(b) Securities bearing the manual or facsimile signature of an individual who was at any time a proper Officer of the Company shall bind the Company, notwithstanding that such individual has ceased to hold such office prior to the authentication and delivery of such Securities or did not hold such office at the date of such Securities.

 

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(c) At any time and from time to time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture, the Company may deliver Securities of any series executed by the Company to the Trustee for authentication, together with a Company Order for the authentication and delivery of such Securities, and the Trustee in accordance with such Company Order shall authenticate and deliver such Securities; provided, that, with respect to Securities of a series constituting a medium term note program, the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver Securities of such series for original issue from time to time in the aggregate principal amount established for such series as may be specified from time to time by a Company Order and pursuant to such procedures acceptable to the Trustee. The maturity dates, original issue dates, interest rates and any other terms of the Securities of such series shall be determined by or pursuant to such Company Order and procedures.

 

(d) If the form or terms of the Securities of the series have been established in or pursuant to one or more Board Resolutions as permitted by Sections 2.1 and 3.1, in authenticating such Securities, and accepting the additional responsibilities under this Indenture in relation to such Securities, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive, and (subject to Section 6.1) shall be fully protected in relying upon, an Opinion of Counsel stating,

 

(1) if the form of any of such Securities has been established by or pursuant to Board Resolution as permitted by Section 2.1, that such form has been established in conformity with the provisions of this Indenture;

 

(2) if the terms of any of such Securities have been established by or pursuant to Board Resolution as permitted by Section 3.1, that such terms have been established in conformity with the provisions of this Indenture; and

 

(3) that such Securities, when authenticated and delivered by the Trustee and issued by the Company in the manner and subject to any conditions specified in such Opinion of Counsel, will constitute valid and legally binding obligations of the Company, enforceable in accordance with their terms, subject to bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization and other laws of general applicability relating to or affecting the enforcement of creditors’ rights and to general equity principles.

 

(e) Notwithstanding that such form or terms have been so established, the Trustee shall not be required to authenticate such Securities if the issue of such Securities pursuant to this Indenture would adversely affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities and this Indenture or otherwise in a manner which is not reasonably acceptable to the Trustee.

 

(f) Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 3.1 and of the preceding paragraph, if all Securities of a series are not to be originally issued at one time, it shall not be necessary to deliver the Officer’s Certificate otherwise required pursuant to Section 3.1 or the Company Order and Opinion of Counsel otherwise required pursuant to this Section 3.3 at or prior to the time of authentication of each Security of such series if such documents have been delivered at or prior to the time of authentication upon original issuance of the first Security of such series to be issued.

 

(g) With respect to Securities of a series constituting a medium term note program, if the form and general terms of the Securities of such series have been established by or pursuant to one or more Board Resolutions or by an indenture supplemental hereto, as permitted by Sections 2.1 and 3.1, in authenticating such Securities, and accepting the additional responsibilities under this Indenture in relation to such Securities, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive, and (subject to Section 6.1) shall be fully protected in relying upon, in addition to the foregoing documents and Opinion of Counsel, or in lieu of clause (c) above, an Opinion of Counsel stating that the Securities have been duly authorized by the Company and, when duly executed by the Company and completed and authenticated by the Trustee in accordance with the Indenture and issued, delivered and paid for in accordance with any applicable distribution agreement, will have been duly issued under the Indenture and will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company, enforceable in accordance with their terms, subject to bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization and other laws of general applicability relating to or affecting the enforcement of creditors’ rights and to general equity principles.

 

(h) Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication.

 

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(i) No Security shall be entitled to any benefit under this Indenture or be valid or obligatory for any purpose unless there appears on such Security a certificate of authentication substantially in the form provided for herein executed by the Trustee by manual signature, and such certificate upon any Security shall be conclusive evidence, and the only evidence, that such Security has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder and is entitled to the benefits of this Indenture. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if any Security shall have been authenticated and delivered hereunder but never issued and sold by the Company, and the Company shall deliver such Security to the Trustee for cancellation as provided in Section 3.9 together with a written statement (which need not comply with Section 1.2 and need not be accompanied by an Opinion of Counsel) stating that such Security has never been issued and sold by the Company, for all purposes of this Indenture such Security shall be deemed never to have been authenticated and delivered hereunder and shall never be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture.

 

Section 3.4. Temporary Securities.

 

(a) Pending the preparation of definitive Securities of any series, the Company may execute, and upon Company Order, the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, temporary Securities which are printed, lithographed, typewritten, mimeographed or otherwise produced, in any authorized denomination, substantially of the tenor of the definitive Securities in lieu of which they are issued, with such appropriate insertions, omissions, substitutions and other variations as the Officer executing such Securities may determine, as evidenced by his or her execution of such Securities.

 

(b) If temporary Securities of any series are issued, the Company will cause definitive Securities of that series to be prepared without unreasonable delay. After the preparation of definitive Securities of such series, the temporary Securities of such series shall be exchangeable for definitive Securities of such series upon surrender of the temporary Securities of such series at the office or agency of the Company in a Place of Payment for that series, without charge to the Holder. Upon surrender for cancellation of any one or more temporary Securities of any series the Company shall execute and, upon Company Order, the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange therefor a like principal amount of definitive Securities of the same series and of like tenor, of authorized denominations. Until so exchanged the temporary Securities of any series shall in all respects be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series.

 

Section 3.5. Registration; Registration of Transfer and Exchange.

 

(a) The Company shall cause to be kept at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee a register (the register maintained in such office and in any other office or agency of the Company in a Place of Payment being herein sometimes collectively referred to as the “Security Register”) in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, the Company shall provide for the registration of Securities and of transfers of Securities. The Trustee is hereby appointed “Security Registrar” for the purpose of registering Securities and transfers of Securities as herein provided and “Paying Agent” for the Securities. In acting hereunder and in connection with the Securities, the Paying Agent and Security Registrar shall act solely as agents of the Company, and will not thereby assume any obligations towards or relationship of agency or trust for or with any Holder.

 

(b) Upon surrender for registration of transfer of any Security of any series at an office or agency of the Company in a Place of Payment designated by the Company pursuant to Section 10.2 for that series, the Company shall execute and, upon Company Order, the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, in the name of the designated transferee or transferees, one or more new Securities of the same series, of any authorized denominations and of a like aggregate principal amount and tenor.

 

(c) At the option of the Holder, Securities of any series may be exchanged for other Securities of the same series of any authorized denominations and of a like aggregate principal amount and tenor, upon surrender of the Securities to be exchanged at such office or agency. Whenever any Securities are so surrendered for exchange, the Company shall execute and, upon Company Order, the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, the Securities which the Holder making the exchange is entitled to receive.

 

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(d) All Securities issued upon any registration of transfer or exchange of Securities shall be the valid obligations of the Company, evidencing the same debt, and entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture, as the Securities surrendered upon such registration of transfer or exchange.

 

(e) Every Security presented or surrendered for registration of transfer or for exchange shall (if so required by the Company, the Security Registrar or the Trustee) be duly endorsed, or be accompanied by a written instrument of transfer, in form satisfactory to the Company and the Security Registrar, duly executed by the Holder thereof or such Holder’s attorney duly authorized in writing.

 

(f) No service charge shall be made for any registration of transfer or for exchange of Securities, but the Company or the Trustee may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in connection with any registration of transfer or exchange of Securities, other than exchanges pursuant to Section 3.4, 9.6 or 11.7 not involving any transfer.

 

(g) The Company shall not be required (i) to issue, register the transfer of or exchange Securities of any series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of the sending of a notice of redemption of Securities of that series selected for redemption under Section 11.3 and ending at the close of business on the day of such transmission, or (ii) to register the transfer of or exchange any Security so selected for redemption in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any Security being redeemed in part.

 

(h) Notwithstanding the foregoing, any Global Security shall be exchangeable pursuant to this Section 3.5 for Securities registered in the names of Persons other than the Depositary for such Security or its nominee only if (i) such Depositary notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such Global Security or if any time such Depositary ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act and the Company has not appointed a successor Depositary within 90 days from the date of such notice or from the date the Company became aware that such Depositary is no longer registered, as applicable, (ii) the Company executes and delivers to the Trustee a Company Order that such Global Security shall be so exchangeable or (iii) there shall have occurred and be continuing an Event of Default of which the Trustee has been notified with respect to the Securities and the Depositary for such Global Security requests such exchange in writing. Any Global Security that is exchangeable pursuant to the preceding sentence shall be exchangeable for Securities registered in such names as the Depositary shall direct in writing in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security with like tenor and terms.

 

(i) Notwithstanding any other provision in this Indenture, a Global Security may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary with respect to such Global Security to a nominee of such Depositary or by a nominee of such Depositary to such Depositary or another nominee of such Depositary.

 

(j) The Trustee shall have no responsibility, obligation or duty to:

 

(1) any beneficial owner of a Global Security, any member or participant in the Depositary or any other Person with respect to (A) the accuracy of the records of the Depositary or its nominee or of any participant or member thereof, with respect to any ownership interest in the Securities, (B) the delivery to any participant, member, beneficial owner or other Person (other than the Depositary) of any notice (including any notice of redemption or purchase) or the payment of any amount or delivery of any Securities (or other security or property) under or with respect to such Securities, or (C) the selection of the particular Securities or portions thereof to be redeemed or refunded in the event of a partial redemption or refunding of the Securities; or

 

(2) monitor, determine or inquire as to compliance with any restrictions on transfer imposed under this Indenture or under applicable law with respect to any transfer of any interest in any Security (including any transfers between or among the Depositary, its agent members or beneficial owners in any Global Security) other than to require delivery of such certificates and other documentation or evidence as are expressly required by, and to do so if and when expressly required by, the terms of this Indenture with respect to transfers between Holders, and to examine the same to determine substantial compliance as to form with the express requirements hereof. Neither the Trustee nor any of its agents shall have any responsibility for any actions taken or not taken by the Depositary.

 

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(3) All notices and communications to be given by any beneficial owner of a Security and all payments to be made to any beneficial owner of a Security in respect of the Securities shall be given or made only to or upon the order of the registered owner or owners of the Securities (which shall be the Depositary or its nominee in the case of a Global Security). The rights of the beneficial owners of any Global Security shall be exercised only through the Depositary subject to the applicable rules and procedures of the Depositary. The Trustee may rely and shall be fully protected in relying upon information furnished by the Depositary with respect to its members, participants and beneficial owners.

 

Section 3.6. Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities.

 

(a) If any mutilated Security is surrendered to the Trustee, the Company shall execute and, upon Company Order, the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange therefor a new Security of the same series and of like tenor and principal amount, and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding.

 

(b) If there shall be delivered to the Company and the Trustee (i) evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of any Security and (ii) such security and/or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them and any agent of any of them harmless, then, in the absence of notice to the Company or the Trustee that such Security has been acquired by a bona fide purchaser, the Company shall execute and, upon Company Order, the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, in lieu of any such destroyed, lost or stolen Security, a new Security of the same series and of like tenor and principal amount, and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding.

 

(c) In case any such mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security has become or is about to become due and payable, the Company in its discretion may, instead of issuing a new Security, pay such Security.

 

(d) Upon the issuance of any new Security under this Section 3.6, the Company or the Trustee may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the reasonable fees and expenses of the Trustee and its counsel) connected therewith.

 

(e) Every new Security of any series issued pursuant to this Section 3.6 in lieu of any destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall constitute an original additional contractual obligation of the Company, whether or not the destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of that series duly issued hereunder.

 

(f) The provisions of this Section 3.6 are exclusive and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) all other rights and remedies with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities.

 

Section 3.7. Payment of Interest; Interest Rights Preserved.

 

(a) Unless otherwise provided as contemplated by Section 3.1 with respect to any series of Securities, interest on any Security which is payable, and is punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date shall be paid to the Person in whose name that Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the Regular Record Date for such interest.

 

(b) Any interest on any Security of any series which is payable, but is not punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date (herein called “Defaulted Interest”) shall forthwith cease to be payable to the Holder entitled to such interest by virtue of having been such Holder, and such Defaulted Interest may be paid by the Company, at its election in each case, as provided in clause (1) or (2) below:

 

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(1) The Company may elect to make payment of any Defaulted Interest to the Persons in whose names the Securities of such series (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered at the close of business on a Special Record Date (as defined below) for the payment of such Defaulted Interest, which shall be fixed in the following manner. The Company shall notify the Trustee in writing of the amount of Defaulted Interest proposed to be paid on each Security of such series and the date of the proposed payment, and at the same time the Company shall deposit with the Trustee an amount of money equal to the aggregate amount proposed to be paid in respect of such Defaulted Interest or shall make arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for such deposit prior to the date of the proposed payment, such money when deposited to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such Defaulted Interest as in this clause provided. Thereupon the Trustee shall fix a special record date (the “Special Record Date”) for the payment of such Defaulted Interest which shall be not more than 15 days and not less than 10 days prior to the date of the proposed payment and not less than 10 days after the receipt by the Trustee of the notice of the proposed payment. The Trustee shall promptly notify the Company of such Special Record Date and, in the name and at the expense of the Company, shall cause notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the Special Record Date therefor to be sent to each Holder of Securities of such series in accordance with Section 1.6, not less than 10 days prior to such Special Record Date. Notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the Special Record Date therefor having been so sent, such Defaulted Interest shall be paid to the Persons in whose names the Securities of such series (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered at the close of business on such Special Record Date and shall no longer be payable pursuant to the following clause (2).

 

(2) The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on the Securities of any series in any other lawful manner not inconsistent with the requirements of any securities exchange on which such Securities may be listed, and upon such notice as may be required by such exchange, if, after notice given by the Company to the Trustee of the proposed payment pursuant to this clause, such manner of payment shall be deemed practicable by the Trustee.

 

(c) Subject to the foregoing provisions of this Section 3.7, each Security delivered under this Indenture, upon registration of transfer of or in exchange for or in lieu of any other Security shall carry the rights to interest accrued and unpaid, and to accrue, which were carried by such other Security.

 

Section 3.8. Persons Deemed Owners.

 

Prior to due presentment of a Security for registration of transfer, the Company, the Trustee and any agent of the Company or the Trustee may treat the Person in whose name such Security is registered as the owner of such Security for the purpose of receiving payment of principal of (and premium, if any) and (subject to Section 3.7) interest on such Security and for all other purposes whatsoever, whether or not such Security be overdue, and neither the Company, the Trustee nor any agent of the Company or the Trustee shall be affected by notice to the contrary. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, a Holder, including any Depositary that is the Holder of a Global Security, may make, give or take, by a proxy or proxies duly appointed in writing, any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action provided in this Indenture to be made, given or taken by Holders, and the Depositary that is the Holder of a Global Security may provide its proxy or proxies to the beneficial owners of interests in any such Global Security through such Depositary’s standing instructions and customary practice.

 

Section 3.9. Cancellation.

 

All Securities surrendered for payment, redemption, registration of transfer or exchange or for credit against any sinking fund payment shall, if surrendered to any Person other than the Trustee, be delivered to the Trustee and shall be promptly canceled by it. The Company may at any time deliver to the Trustee for cancellation any Securities previously authenticated and delivered hereunder which the Company may have acquired in any manner whatsoever, and may deliver to the Trustee (or to any other Person for delivery to the Trustee) for cancellation any Securities previously authenticated hereunder which the Company has not issued and sold and all Securities so delivered shall be promptly canceled by the Trustee. No Securities shall be authenticated in lieu of or in exchange for any Securities canceled as provided in this Section 3.9, except as expressly permitted by this Indenture. Subject to the record retention requirements of the Act and the Trustee’s procedures, all canceled Securities held by the Trustee shall be disposed of as directed by a Company Order.

 

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Section 3.10. Computation of Interest.

 

Except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 3.1 for Securities of any series, interest on the Securities of each series shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months.

 

ARTICLE IV

SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE

 

Section 4.1. Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture.

 

(a) This Indenture shall upon Company Request cease to be of further effect with respect to Securities of any series (except as to any surviving rights of registration of transfer or exchange of Securities of such series and replacement of lost, stolen or mutilated Securities of such series herein expressly provided for), and the Trustee, on the demand of and at the expense of the Company, shall execute instruments acknowledging satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture with respect to such series, when

 

(1) either

 

(A) all Securities of such series theretofore authenticated and delivered (other than (i) Securities of such series which have been destroyed, lost or stolen and which have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 3.6 and (ii) Securities of such series for whose payment money has theretofore been deposited in trust or segregated and held in trust by the Company and thereafter repaid to the Company or discharged from such trust, as provided in Section 10.3) have been delivered to the Trustee for cancellation; or

 

(B) all such Securities of such series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation

 

(i) have become due and payable, or

 

(ii) will become due and payable at their Stated Maturity within one year, or

 

(iii) are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption, and the Company, in the case of (i), (ii) or (iii) above, has deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds in trust for the purpose an amount sufficient to pay and discharge the entire indebtedness on such Securities of such series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, for principal (and premium, if any) and interest to the date of such deposit (in the case of Securities of such series which have become due and payable) or to the Stated Maturity or Redemption Date, as the case may be; and

 

(2) the Company has paid or caused to be paid all other sums payable hereunder by the Company; and

 

(3) the Company has delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture have been complied with.

 

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(b) At any time when no Securities of any series are outstanding, this Indenture shall upon Company Request cease to be of further effect and the Trustee, at the expense of the Company, shall execute instruments of satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture.

 

(c) Notwithstanding the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, the obligations of the Company to the Trustee under Section 6.7, the obligations of the Company to any Authenticating Agent under Section 6.14 and, if money shall have been deposited with the Trustee pursuant to subclause (B) of clause (1) of this Section 4.1, the obligations of the Trustee under Section 4.2 and the last paragraph of Section 10.3 shall survive.

 

Section 4.2. Application of Trust Money.

 

Subject to the provisions of the last paragraph of Section 10.3, all money deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 4.1, all money and U.S. Government Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 13.2 or Section 13.3 and all money received by the Trustee in respect of U.S. Government Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 13.2 or Section 13.3, shall be held in trust and applied by it, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities and this Indenture, to the payment, either directly or through any Paying Agent (including the Company acting as Paying Agent) as the Trustee may determine, to the Persons entitled thereto, of the principal (and premium, if any) and interest for whose payment such money has been deposited with or received by the Trustee as contemplated by Section 4.1, Section 13.2 or Section 13.3.

 

ARTICLE V
REMEDIES

 

Section 5.1. Events of Default.

 

“Event of Default”, wherever used herein with respect to Securities of any series, means any one of the following events (whatever the reason for such Event of Default and whether it shall be voluntary or involuntary or be effected by operation of law or pursuant to any judgment, decree or order of any court or any order, rule or regulation of any administrative or governmental body):

 

(1) default in the payment of any interest upon any Security of that series when it becomes due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days;

 

(2) default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any Security of that series;

 

(3) default in the deposit of any sinking fund payment, to the extent applicable, when and as due by the terms of any Security of that series;

 

(4) default in the performance, or breach, of any covenant of the Company in this Indenture (other than a covenant a default in whose performance or whose breach is elsewhere in this Section 5.1 specifically dealt with or which has expressly been included in this Indenture solely for the benefit of a series of Securities other than the series in respect of which the Event of Default is being determined), and continuance of such default or breach for a period of 60 days after there has been sent to the Company by the Trustee or to the Company and the Trustee by the Holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of that series, a written notice specifying such default or breach and requiring it to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder;

 

(5) the entry by a court having jurisdiction in the premises of (A) a decree or order for relief in respect of the Company in an involuntary case or proceeding under any applicable federal or state bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization or other similar law or (B) a decree or order adjudging the Company a bankrupt or insolvent, or approving as properly filed a petition seeking reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition of or in respect of the Company under any applicable federal or state law, or appointing a custodian, receiver, liquidator, assignee, trustee, sequestrator or other similar official of the Company or of any substantial part of its property, or ordering the winding up or liquidation of its affairs, and the continuance of any such decree or order for relief or any such other decree or order unstayed and in effect for a period of 90 consecutive days;

 

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(6) the commencement by the Company of a voluntary case or proceeding under any applicable federal or state bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization or other similar law or of any other case or proceeding to be adjudicated a bankrupt or insolvent, or the consent by it to the entry of a decree or order for relief in respect of the Company in an involuntary case or proceeding under any applicable federal or state bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization or other similar law or to the commencement of any bankruptcy or insolvency case or proceeding against it, or the filing by it of a petition or answer or consent seeking reorganization or relief under any applicable federal or state law, or the consent by it to the filing of such petition or to the appointment of or taking possession by a custodian, receiver, liquidator, assignee, trustee, sequestrator or similar official of the Company or of any substantial part of its property, or the making by the Company of an assignment for the benefit of creditors, or the admission by the Company in writing of its inability to pay its debts generally as they become due, or the taking of corporate action by the Company in furtherance of any such action; or

 

(7) any other Event of Default provided with respect to Securities of that series.

 

Subject to the provisions of Section 6.1 hereof, the Trustee shall not be deemed to have knowledge of an Event of Default hereunder (except for those described in paragraphs (1) through (3) above, if the Trustee is then the Paying Agent) unless a Responsible Officer of the Trustee shall have actual knowledge thereof or shall have received written notice thereof and such notice references the Securities and this Indenture.

 

Section 5.2. Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment.

 

(a) If an Event of Default (other than an Event of Default specified in clause (5) or (6) of Section 5.1) with respect to Securities of any series at the time Outstanding occurs and is continuing, then and in every such case the Trustee or the Holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of that series may declare the principal amount (or, if any of the Securities of that series are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount of such Securities as may be specified in the terms thereof), together with accrued and unpaid interest, if any, of all of the Securities of that series to be due and payable immediately, by a notice in writing to the Company (and to the Trustee if given by Holders), and upon any such declaration such principal amount (or specified amount) shall become immediately due and payable. If an Event of Default specified in clause (5) or (6) of Section 5.1 with respect to Securities of any series at the time Outstanding occurs, the principal amount (or, if any of the Securities of that series are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount of such Securities as may be specified in the terms thereof) of all of the Outstanding Securities of that series shall be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the Trustee or any Holder of any Security of that series.

 

(b) At any time after such a declaration of acceleration with respect to Securities of any series has been made and before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the Trustee as hereinafter provided in this Article V, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of that series, by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if:

 

(1) the Company has paid or deposited with the Trustee a sum sufficient to pay

 

(A) all overdue interest on all Securities of that series,

 

(B) the principal of (and premium, if any, on) any Securities of that series which have become due otherwise than by such declaration of acceleration and interest thereon at the rate or rates prescribed therefor in such Securities,

 

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(C) to the extent that payment of such interest is lawful, interest upon overdue principal (and premium, if any) and overdue interest at the rate or rates prescribed therefor in such Securities, and

 

(D) all sums paid or advanced by the Trustee hereunder and the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel; and

 

(2) all Events of Default with respect to Securities of that series, other than the non-payment of the principal of Securities of that series which have become due solely by such declaration of acceleration, have been cured or waived as provided in Section 5.13.

 

(c) No such rescission shall affect any subsequent default or impair any right consequent thereon.

 

(d) Upon receipt by the Trustee of any declaration of acceleration, or rescission and annulment thereof, with respect to Securities of a series all or part of which is represented by a Global Security, the Trustee shall establish a record date for determining Holders of Outstanding Securities of such series entitled to join in such declaration of acceleration, or rescission and annulment, as the case may be, which record date shall be at the close of business on the day the Trustee receives such declaration of acceleration, or rescission and annulment, as the case may be. The Holders on such record date, or their duly designated proxies, and only such Persons, shall be entitled to join in such declaration of acceleration, or rescission and annulment, as the case may be, whether or not such Holders remain Holders after such record date; provided, that unless such declaration of acceleration, or rescission and annulment, as the case may be, shall have become effective by virtue of the requisite percentage having been obtained prior to the day which is 90 days after such record date, such declaration of acceleration, or rescission and annulment, as the case may be, shall automatically and without further action by any Holder be canceled and of no further effect. Nothing in this paragraph shall prevent a Holder, or a proxy of a Holder, from giving, after expiration of such 90-day period, a new declaration of acceleration, or rescission or annulment thereof, as the case may be, that is identical to a declaration of acceleration, or rescission or annulment thereof, which has been canceled pursuant to the preceding sentence, in which event a new record date shall be established pursuant to the provision of this Section 5.2.

 

Section 5.3. Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.

 

(a) The Company covenants that if:

 

(1) default is made in the payment of any interest on any Security when such interest becomes due and payable and such default continues for a period of 30 days; or

 

(2) default is made in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any Security at the Maturity thereof; or

 

(3) default is made in the deposit of any sinking fund payment, when and as due by the terms of a Security; the Company will, upon demand of the Trustee, pay to it, for the benefit of the Holders of such Securities, the whole amount then due and payable on such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) and interest and, to the extent that payment of such interest shall be legally enforceable, interest on any overdue principal (and premium, if any) and on any overdue interest, at the rate or rates prescribed therefor in such Securities, and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, including the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel.

 

(b) If the Company fails to pay such amounts forthwith upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, may institute a judicial proceeding for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, may prosecute such proceeding to judgment or final decree, and may enforce the same against the Company or any other obligor upon such Securities and collect the moneys adjudged or decreed to be payable in the manner provided by law out of the property of the Company or any other obligor upon such Securities, wherever situated.

 

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(c) If an Event of Default with respect to Securities of any series occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce its rights and the rights of the Holders of Securities of such series by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any such rights, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement in this Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted herein, or to enforce any other proper remedy.

 

Section 5.4. Trustee May File Proofs of Claim.

 

(a) In case of the pendency of any receivership, insolvency, liquidation, bankruptcy, reorganization, arrangement, adjustment, composition or other judicial proceeding relative to the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities or the property of the Company or of such other obligor or their creditors, the Trustee (irrespective of whether the principal of the Securities shall then be due and payable as therein expressed or by declaration or otherwise and irrespective of whether the Trustee shall have made any demand on the Company for the payment of overdue principal (and premium, if any) or interest) shall be entitled and empowered, by intervention in such proceeding or otherwise,

 

(i) to file and prove a claim for the whole amount of principal (and premium, if any) and interest owing and unpaid in respect of the Securities and to file such other papers or documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee (including any claim for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel) and of the Holders allowed in such judicial proceeding, and

 

(ii) to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claims and to distribute the same.

 

(b) Any custodian, receiver, assignee, trustee, liquidator, sequestrator or other similar official in any such judicial proceeding is hereby authorized by each Holder to make such payments to the Trustee and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to the Holders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due it for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, and any other amounts due the Trustee under Section 6.7.

 

(c) Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize, consent to, accept or adopt on behalf of any Holder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities or the rights of any Holder thereof or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Holder in any such proceeding.

 

(d) The Trustee shall be entitled to participate as a member of any official committee of creditors in the matters it deems advisable.

 

Section 5.5. Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities.

 

All rights of action and claims under this Indenture or the Securities may be prosecuted and enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of the Securities or the production thereof in any proceeding relating thereto, and any such proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment shall, after provision for the payment of the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, be for the ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities in respect of which such judgment has been recovered.

 

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Section 5.6. Application of Money Collected.

 

Any money or property collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article V shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such money or property on account of principal (or premium, if any) or interest, upon presentation of the Securities and the notation thereon of the payment if only partially paid and upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

 

FIRST: To the payment of all amounts due the Trustee under Section 6.7;

 

SECOND: To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid for principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on the Securities in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, respectively; and

 

THIRD: To the Company.

 

Section 5.7. Limitation on Suits.

 

No Holder of any Security of any series shall have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to this Indenture, or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless:

 

(1) such Holder has previously given written notice to the Trustee of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the Securities of that series;

 

(2) the Holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of that series shall have made written request to the Trustee to institute proceedings in respect of such Event of Default in its own name as Trustee hereunder;

 

(3) such Holder or Holders have offered to the Trustee indemnity and/or security satisfactory to the Trustee against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred in compliance with such request;

 

(4) the Trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity and/or security has failed to institute any such proceeding; and

 

(5) no direction inconsistent with such written request has been given to the Trustee during such 60-day period by the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of that series;

 

it being understood and intended that no one or more of such Holders shall have any right in any manner whatever by virtue of any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of any other of such Holders (it being understood that the Trustee does not have an affirmative duty to ascertain whether or not such actions or forbearances are unduly prejudicial to such Holders), or to obtain or to seek to obtain priority or preference over any other of such Holders or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal and ratable benefit of all of such Holders.

 

Section 5.8. Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal, Premium and Interest.

 

Notwithstanding any other provision in this Indenture, the Holder of any Security shall have the right, which is absolute and unconditional, to receive payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on such Security on the Stated Maturity or Maturities expressed in such Security (or, in the case of redemption, on the Redemption Date) and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment, and such rights shall not be impaired without the consent of such Holder.

 

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Section 5.9. Restoration of Rights and Remedies.

 

If the Trustee or any Holder has instituted any proceeding to enforce any right or remedy under this Indenture and such proceeding has been discontinued or abandoned for any reason, or has been determined adversely to the Trustee or to such Holder, then and in every such case, subject to any determination in such proceeding, the Company, the Trustee and the Holders shall be restored severally and respectively to their former positions hereunder and thereafter all rights and remedies of the Trustee and the Holders shall continue as though no such proceeding had been instituted.

 

Section 5.10. Rights and Remedies Cumulative.

 

Except as otherwise provided with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities in Section 3.6, no right or remedy herein conferred upon or reserved to the Trustee or to the Holders is intended to be exclusive of any other right or remedy, and every right and remedy shall, to the extent permitted by law, be cumulative and in addition to every other right and remedy given hereunder or now or hereafter existing at law or in equity or otherwise. The assertion or employment of any right or remedy hereunder, or otherwise, shall not prevent the concurrent assertion or employment of any other appropriate right or remedy.

 

Section 5.11. Delay or Omission Not Waiver.

 

No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any Holder of any Securities to exercise any right or remedy accruing upon any Event of Default shall impair any such right or remedy or constitute a waiver of any such Event of Default or an acquiescence therein. Every right and remedy given by this Article V or by law to the Trustee or to the Holders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as may be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Holders, as the case may be.

 

Section 5.12. Control by Holders.

 

(a) The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee, with respect to the Securities of such series, provided that,

 

(1) such direction shall not be in conflict with any rule of law or with this Indenture, nor subject the Trustee to a risk of personal liability in respect of which the Trustee has not received indemnification satisfactory to it in its sole discretion against all losses, liabilities and expenses caused by taking or not taking such action, and

 

(2) the Trustee may take any other action deemed proper by the Trustee which is not inconsistent with such direction.

 

(b) Prior to taking any such action hereunder, the Trustee shall be entitled to indemnification and/or security satisfactory to it in its sole discretion against all fees, losses, liabilities and expenses (including attorney’s fees and expenses) caused by or that might be caused by taking or not taking such action.

 

(c) Upon receipt by the Trustee of any such direction with respect to Securities of a series all or part of which is represented by a Global Security, the Trustee may establish a record date for determining Holders of outstanding Securities of such series entitled to join in such direction, which record date shall be at the close of business on the day the Trustee receives such direction. The Holders on such record date, or their duly designated proxies, and only such Persons, shall be entitled to join in such direction, whether or not such Holders remain Holders after such record date; provided, that unless such majority in principal amount shall have been obtained prior to the day which is 90 days after such record date, such direction shall automatically and without further action by any Holder be canceled and of no further effect. Nothing in this paragraph shall prevent a Holder, or a proxy of a Holder, from giving, after expiration of such 90-day period, a new direction identical to a direction which has been canceled pursuant to the provisions to the preceding sentence, in which event a new record date shall be established pursuant to the provisions of this Section 5.12.

 

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Section 5.13. Waiver of Past Defaults.

 

(a) The Holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series may on behalf of the Holders of all the Securities of such series waive any past default hereunder with respect to such series and its consequences, except a default:

 

(1) in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any Security of such series which have become due otherwise than by a declaration of acceleration under Section 5.2 and interest thereon at the rate or rates prescribed therefor in such Securities, or

 

(2) in respect of a covenant or provision hereof which under Article IX cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the Holder of each Outstanding Security of such series affected.

 

(b) Upon any such waiver, such default shall cease to exist, and any Event of Default arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured, for every purpose of this Indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or impair any right consequent thereon.

 

Section 5.14. Undertaking for Costs.

 

Each party to this Indenture agrees, and each Holder of any Security by such Holder’s acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section 5.14 shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Company, to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Holder, or group of Holders, holding in the aggregate more than 10% in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series, or to any suit instituted by any Holder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any Security on or after the Stated Maturity or Maturities expressed in such Security (or, in the case of redemption, on or after the Redemption Date).

 

Section 5.15. Waiver of Usury, Stay or Extension Laws.

 

The Company covenants (to the extent that it may lawfully do so) that it will not at any time insist upon, or plead, or in any manner whatsoever claim or take the benefit or advantage of, any usury, stay or extension law wherever enacted, now or at any time hereafter in force, which may affect the covenants or the performance of this Indenture; and the Company (to the extent that it may lawfully do so) hereby expressly waives all benefit or advantage of any such law and covenants that it will not hinder, delay or impede the execution of any power herein granted to the Trustee, but will suffer and permit the execution of every such power as though no such law had been enacted.

 

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ARTICLE VI

 

THE TRUSTEE

 

Section 6.1. Certain Duties and Responsibilities.

 

(a) Except during the continuance of an Event of Default,

 

(1) the Trustee undertakes to perform such duties and only such duties as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants or obligations shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee; and

 

(2) in the absence of bad faith on its part, the Trustee may conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; but in the case of any such certificates or opinions which by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they conform to the requirements of this Indenture (but need not confirm or investigate the accuracy or mathematical calculations or other facts stated therein).

 

(b) In case an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing, the Trustee shall exercise such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent Person would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of such Person’s own affairs.

 

(c) No provision of this Indenture shall be construed to relieve the Trustee from liability for its own grossly negligent action, its own grossly negligent failure to act, or its own willful misconduct, except that,

 

(1) this subsection shall not be construed to limit the effect of subsection (a) of this Section 6.1;

 

(2) the Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer, unless it shall be proved that the Trustee was grossly negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts;

 

(3) the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith in accordance with the direction, determined as provided in Section 5.12, of the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series, relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee, under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of such series; and

 

(4) no provision of this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds or otherwise incur any financial liability in the performance of any of its duties hereunder, or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers, if it shall have grounds for believing that repayment of such funds or adequate indemnity and/or security against such risk or liability is not assured to it.

 

(d) Whether or not therein expressly so provided, every provision of this Indenture relating to the conduct or affecting the liability of or affording protection to the Trustee shall be subject to the provisions of this Section 6.1.

 

Section 6.2. Notice of Defaults.

 

Within 90 days after the occurrence of any default hereunder with respect to the Securities of any series, the Trustee shall send to all Holders of Securities of such series notice of such default hereunder known to the Trustee, unless such default shall have been cured or waived; provided, however, that, except in the case of a default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any Security of such series or in the payment of any sinking fund installment with respect to Securities of such series, the Trustee shall be protected in withholding such notice if and so long as the board of directors, the executive committee or a trust committee of directors or Responsible Officers of the Trustee in good faith determine that the withholding of such notice is in the interest of the Holders of Securities of such series. For the purpose of this Section 6.2, the term “default” means any event which is, or after notice or lapse of time or both would become, an Event of Default with respect to Securities of such series.

 

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Section 6.3. Certain Rights of Trustee.

 

Subject to the provisions of Section 6.1:

 

(a) the Trustee may conclusively rely and shall be fully protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, direction, consent, order, bond, debenture, note, other evidence of indebtedness or other paper or document believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties;

 

(b) any request or direction of the Company mentioned herein shall be sufficiently evidenced by a Company Request or Company Order, or as otherwise expressly provided herein, and any resolution of the Board of Directors may be sufficiently evidenced by a Board Resolution;

 

(c) whenever in the administration of this Indenture the Trustee shall deem it desirable that a matter be proved or established prior to taking, suffering or omitting any action hereunder, the Trustee (unless other evidence be herein specifically prescribed) may, in the absence of bad faith on its part, conclusively rely upon an Officer’s Certificate;

 

(d) before the Trustee acts or refrains from acting, it may require an Officer’s Certificate or an Opinion of Counsel or both. The Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith in reliance on such Officer’s Certificate or Opinion of Counsel. The Trustee may consult with counsel of its selection and the written advice of such counsel or any Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken, suffered or omitted by it hereunder in good faith and in reliance thereon;

 

(e) the Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request or direction of any of the Holders pursuant to this Indenture (including, without limitation, instituting, conducting or defending any litigation), unless such Holders shall have offered to the Trustee security and/or indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by it in compliance with such request or direction;

 

(f) the Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, direction, consent, order, bond, debenture, note, other evidence of indebtedness or other paper or document, but the Trustee, in its discretion, may make such further inquiry or investigation into such facts or matters as it may see fit, and, if the Trustee shall determine to make such further inquiry or investigation, it shall be entitled to examine the books, records and premises of the Company, personally or by agent or attorney;

 

(g) the Trustee may execute any of the trusts or powers hereunder or perform any duties hereunder either directly or by or through agents or attorneys and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any misconduct or negligence on the part of any agent or attorney appointed with due care by it hereunder;

 

(h) the rights, privileges, protections, immunities and benefits given to the Trustee, including, without limitation, its right to be indemnified, are extended to, and shall be enforceable by, the Trustee in each of its capacities hereunder (including Security Registrar and Paying Agent), and each agent, custodian and other Person employed to act hereunder;

 

(i) the Trustee is not required to give any bond or surety with respect to the performance of its duties or the exercise of its powers under this Indenture;

 

(j) in no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for special, indirect, or consequential loss or damage of any kind whatsoever (including, but not limited to, loss of profit) irrespective of whether the Trustee has been advised of the likelihood of such loss or damage and regardless of the form of action;

 

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(k) the Trustee may request that the Company deliver an Officer’s Certificate setting forth the names of individuals and/or titles of officers authorized at such time to take specified actions with respect to any series of Securities pursuant to this Indenture, which Officer’s Certificate may be signed by any person authorized to sign an Officer’s Certificate, including any person specified as so authorized in any such certificate previously delivered and not superseded;

 

(l) the Trustee shall not be responsible or liable for any failure or delay in the performance of its obligations under this Indenture arising out of or caused, directly or indirectly, by circumstances beyond its reasonable control, including, without limitation, acts of God; earthquakes; fire; flood; terrorism; wars and other military disturbances; sabotage; epidemics; riots; interruptions; loss or malfunction of utilities, computer (hardware or software) or communication services; accidents; labor disputes; and acts of civil or military authorities and governmental action;

 

(m) the Trustee shall have no responsibility for any information in any offering document or other disclosure material distributed with respect to any series of Securities, and the Trustee shall have no responsibility for compliance with any state or federal securities laws in connection with the Securities, other than the filing of any documents required to be filed by an indenture trustee pursuant to the Trust Indenture Act or otherwise required in the Indenture; and

 

(n) the permissive rights of the Trustee to do things enumerated in this Indenture shall not be construed as duties.

 

Section 6.4. Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance of Securities.

 

The recitals contained herein and in the Securities, except the Trustee’s certificates of authentication, shall be taken as the statements of the Company, and the Trustee or any Authenticating Agent assumes no responsibility for their correctness. The Trustee makes no representations as to the validity or sufficiency of this Indenture or of the Securities. The Trustee or any Authenticating Agent shall not be accountable for the use or application by the Company of Securities or the proceeds thereof. The Trustee shall have no responsibility for filing any financing or continuation statement in any public office at any time or otherwise to perfect or maintain the perfection of any security interest or lien granted to it hereunder or to record this Indenture.

 

Section 6.5. May Hold Securities.

 

The Trustee, any Authenticating Agent, any Paying Agent, any Security Registrar or any other agent of the Company or of the Trustee, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities and, subject to Sections 6.8 and 6.13, may otherwise deal with the Company with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee, Authenticating Agent, Paying Agent, Security Registrar or such other agent.

 

Section 6.6. Money Held in Trust.

 

Money held by the Trustee in trust hereunder need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law. The Trustee shall be under no liability for interest on any money received by it hereunder except as otherwise agreed with the Company.

 

Section 6.7. Compensation and Reimbursement.

 

The Company agrees:

 

(1) to pay to the Trustee from time to time such reasonable compensation for its acceptance of this Indenture and for its services hereunder as Trustee, Paying Agent, Security Registrar and in all other capacities in which it is serving hereunder as the Company and the Trustee shall from time to time agree in writing (which compensation shall not be limited by any provision of law in regard to the compensation of a trustee of an express trust);

 

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(2) except as otherwise expressly provided herein, to reimburse the Trustee upon its request for all reasonable out-of-pocket expenses, disbursements and advances incurred or made by the Trustee in accordance with any provision of this Indenture (including the reasonable compensation and the expenses and disbursements of its agents and counsel), except any such expense, disbursement or advance as may be attributable to its gross negligence or willful misconduct; and

 

(3) to indemnify the Trustee, any predecessor Trustee and their respective agents, directors, employees and officers for, and to hold them harmless against, any loss, damage, claim, liability or out-of-pocket expense (including the reasonable compensation and the expenses and disbursements of its agents and counsel and taxes (other than taxes based upon, measured or determined by the income of the Trustee, any predecessor Trustee or their respective agents, directors, employees and officers)) incurred without gross negligence or willful misconduct on its or their part (as determined by a competent court of appropriate jurisdiction in a final, non-appealable judgment), arising out of or in connection with the acceptance or administration of the trust or trusts hereunder, including the reasonable costs and out-of-pocket expenses of defending itself against any claim or liability in connection with the exercise or performance of any of the Trustee’s powers or duties hereunder.

 

The Trustee shall notify the Company promptly of any claim for which it may seek indemnification pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture. Failure by the Trustee to so notify the Company shall not relieve the Company of its obligations hereunder. The Company shall be entitled to participate in, and to the extent that it shall wish, to assume the defense of such claim, with counsel satisfactory to the Trustee (and the Trustee shall cooperate in the defense thereof), and after notice from the Company to the Trustee of the Company’s election so to assume the defense thereof, the Company shall not be liable to the Trustee under this Indenture for any legal or other expenses subsequently incurred by the Trustee in connection with the defense thereof other than reasonable costs of investigation; provided, however, that the Trustee may only employ separate counsel at the expense of the Company if in the judgment of the Trustee (i) the Company has not retained counsel reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee, (ii) a conflict of interest or a potential conflict of interest exists by reason of common representation or (iii) there are legal defenses available to the Trustee that are different from or are in addition to those available to the Company or if all parties commonly represented do not agree as to the action (or inaction) of counsel. Any settlement which affects the Trustee may not be entered into without the consent of the Trustee, unless the Trustee is given a full and unconditional release from liability with the respect to the claims covered thereby and such settlement does not include a statement or admission of fault, culpability or failure to act by or on behalf of the Trustee. After the Company has assumed the defense of any indemnified party hereunder, no such indemnified party may settle or compromise any suit or action without the consent of the Company (which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld, conditioned or delayed).

 

As security for the performance of the obligations of the Company under this Section 6.7, the Trustee shall have a lien prior to the Securities upon all property and funds held or collected by the Trustee as such, except funds held in trust for the payment of principal of, premium, if any, or interest, if any, on particular Securities. If the Trustee incurs out-of-pocket expenses or renders services after the occurrence of an Event of Default, the expenses and the compensation for the services will be intended to constitute expenses of administration under Title 11 of the United States Bankruptcy Code or any applicable federal or state law for the relief of debtors. The provisions of this Section 6.7 shall survive the resignation or removal of the Trustee and the termination of this Indenture.

 

Section 6.8. Disqualification; Conflicting Interests.

 

The Trustee shall comply with the terms of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

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Section 6.9. Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility.

 

There shall at all times be a Trustee hereunder which shall be eligible to act as such pursuant to the Trust Indenture Act and which shall be a corporation organized and doing business under the laws of the United States of America, any state thereof or the District of Columbia, authorized under such laws to exercise corporate trust powers, having a combined capital and surplus of at least $50,000,000 and subject to supervision or examination by federal or state authority. If such corporation publishes reports of condition at least annually, pursuant to law or to the requirements of said supervising or examining authority, then for the purposes of this Section 6.9, the combined capital and surplus of such corporation shall be deemed to be its combined capital and surplus as set forth in its most recent report of condition so published. If at any time the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of this Section 6.9, it shall resign immediately in the manner and with the effect hereinafter specified in this Article VI.

 

Section 6.10. Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor.

 

(a) No resignation or removal of the Trustee and no appointment of a successor Trustee pursuant to this Article VI shall become effective until the acceptance of appointment by the successor Trustee in accordance with the applicable requirements of Section 6.11.

 

(b) The Trustee may resign at any time with respect to the Securities of one or more series by giving written notice thereof to the Company. If the instrument of acceptance by a successor Trustee required by Section 6.11 shall not have been delivered to the Trustee within 30 days after the giving of such notice of resignation, the resigning Trustee may, at the expense of the Company, petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of such series.

 

(c) The Trustee may be removed at any time with respect to the Securities of any series by Act of the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series, delivered to the Trustee and to the Company.

 

(d) If at any time:

 

(1) the Trustee shall fail to comply with Section 6.8 after written request therefor by the Company or by any Holder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security for at least six months;

 

(2) the Trustee shall cease to be eligible under Section 6.9 and shall fail to resign after written request therefor by the Company or by any such Holder; or

 

(3) the Trustee shall become incapable of acting or shall be adjudged a bankrupt or insolvent, or a receiver of the Trustee or of its property shall be appointed or any public officer shall take charge or control of the Trustee or of its property or affairs for the purpose of rehabilitation, conservation or liquidation, then, in any such case, (i) the Company by a Board Resolution may remove the Trustee with respect to all Securities, or (ii) subject to Section 5.14, any Holder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security for at least six months may, on its own behalf and on behalf of all others similarly situated, petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of the Trustee with respect to all Securities and the appointment of a successor Trustee or Trustees.

 

(e) If the Trustee shall resign, be removed or become incapable of acting, or if a vacancy shall occur in the office of Trustee for any cause, with respect to the Securities of one or more series, the Company, by a Board Resolution, shall promptly appoint a successor Trustee or Trustees with respect to the Securities of that or those series (it being understood that any such successor Trustee may be appointed with respect to the Securities of one or more or all of such series and that at any time there shall be only one Trustee with respect to the Securities of any particular series) and shall comply with the applicable requirements of Section 6.11. If, within one year after such resignation, removal or incapability, or the occurrence of such vacancy, a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series shall be appointed by Act of the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series delivered to the Company and the retiring Trustee, the successor Trustee so appointed shall, forthwith upon its acceptance of such appointment in accordance with the applicable requirements of Section 6.11, become the successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of such series and to that extent supersede the successor Trustee appointed by the Company. If no successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series shall have been so appointed by the Company or the Holders and accepted appointment in the manner required by Section 6.11, any Holder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security of such series for at least six months may, on its own behalf and on behalf of all others similarly situated, petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of such series.

 

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(f) The Company shall give notice of each resignation and each removal of the Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series and each appointment of a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series by sending written notice of such event to all Holders of Securities of such series in the manner provided in Section 1.6. Each notice shall include the name of the successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of such series and the address of its Corporate Trust Office.

 

(g) Notwithstanding replacement of the Trustee pursuant to this Section 6.10, the Company’s obligations under Section 6.7 hereof shall continue for the benefit of the retiring Trustee.

 

Section 6.11. Acceptance of Appointment by Successor.

 

(a) In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor Trustee with respect to all Securities, every such successor Trustee so appointed shall execute, acknowledge and deliver to the Company and to the retiring Trustee an instrument accepting such appointment, and thereupon the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective and such successor Trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee; but, on the request of the Company or the successor Trustee, such retiring Trustee shall, upon payment of its charges, execute and deliver an instrument transferring to such successor Trustee all the rights, powers and trusts of the retiring Trustee and shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor Trustee all property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder.

 

(b) In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more (but not all) series, the Company, the retiring Trustee and each successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more series shall execute and deliver an indenture supplemental hereto wherein each successor Trustee shall accept such appointment and which (1) shall contain such provisions as shall be necessary or desirable to transfer and confirm to, and to vest in, each successor Trustee all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor Trustee relates; (2) if the retiring Trustee is not retiring with respect to all Securities, shall contain such provisions as shall be deemed necessary or desirable to confirm that all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series as to which the retiring Trustee is not retiring shall continue to be vested in the retiring Trustee; and (3) shall add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee, it being understood that nothing herein or in such supplemental indenture shall constitute such Trustees co-trustees of the same trust and that each such Trustee shall be trustee of a trust or trusts hereunder separate and apart from any trust or trusts hereunder administered by any other such Trustee; and, upon the execution and delivery of such supplemental indenture, the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective to the extent provided therein and each such successor Trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor Trustee relates; but, on request of the Company or any successor Trustee, such retiring Trustee shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor Trustee all property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor Trustee relates.

 

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(c) Upon request of any such successor Trustee, the Company shall execute any and all instruments for more fully and certainly vesting in and confirming to such successor Trustee all such rights, powers and trusts referred to in paragraph (a) and (b) of this Section 6.11, as the case may be.

 

(d) No successor Trustee shall accept its appointment unless at the time of such acceptance such successor Trustee shall be qualified and eligible under this Article VI.

 

Section 6.12. Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business.

 

Any corporation into which the Trustee may be merged or converted or with which it may be consolidated, or any corporation resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which the Trustee shall be a party, or any corporation succeeding to all or substantially all the corporate trust business of the Trustee, shall be the successor of the Trustee hereunder, provided such corporation shall be otherwise qualified and eligible under this Article VI, without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of any of the parties hereto. In case any Securities shall have been authenticated, but not delivered, by the Trustee then in office, any successor by merger, conversion or consolidation to such authenticating Trustee may adopt such authentication and deliver the Securities so authenticated with the same effect as if such successor Trustee had itself authenticated such Securities.

 

Section 6.13. Preferential Collection of Claims.

 

The Trustee shall comply with Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act, excluding any creditor relationship listed in Section 311(b) of the Trust Indenture Act. A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act to the extent indicated therein.

 

Section 6.14. Appointment of Authenticating Agent.

 

(a) At any time when any of the Securities remain Outstanding, the Trustee may, and upon request of the Company, shall, appoint an Authenticating Agent or Agents with respect to one or more series of Securities, which shall be authorized to act on behalf of the Trustee to authenticate Securities of such series issued upon exchange, registration of transfer or partial redemption thereof or pursuant to Section 3.6. Securities so authenticated shall be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture and shall be valid and obligatory for all purposes as if authenticated by the Trustee hereunder. Wherever reference is made in this Indenture to the authentication and delivery of Securities by the Trustee or the Trustee’s certificate of authentication, such reference shall be deemed to include authentication and delivery on behalf of the Trustee by an Authenticating Agent and a certificate of authentication executed on behalf of the Trustee by an Authenticating Agent. Each Authenticating Agent shall be acceptable to the Company and shall at all times be a corporation organized and doing business under the laws of the United States of America, any state thereof or the District of Columbia, authorized under such laws to act as Authenticating Agent, having a combined capital and surplus of not less than $50,000,000 and subject to supervision or examination by federal or state authority. If such Authenticating Agent publishes reports of condition at least annually pursuant to law or to the requirements of said supervising or examining authority, then for the purposes of this Section 6.14, the combined capital and surplus of such Authenticating Agent shall be deemed to be its combined capital and surplus as set forth in its most recent report of condition so published. If at any time an Authenticating Agent shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of this Section 6.14, such Authenticating Agent shall resign immediately in the manner and with the effect specified in this Section 6.14.

 

(b) Any corporation into which an Authenticating Agent may be merged or converted or with which it may be consolidated, or any corporation resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which such Authenticating Agent shall be a party, or any corporation succeeding to the corporate agency or corporate trust business of an Authenticating Agent, shall continue to be an Authenticating Agent, provided such corporation shall be otherwise eligible under this Section 6.14, without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of the Trustee or the Authenticating Agent.

 

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(c) An Authenticating Agent may resign at any time by giving written notice thereof to the Trustee and the Company. The Trustee may at any time terminate the agency of an Authenticating Agent by giving written notice thereof to such Authenticating Agent and the Company, and the Trustee shall terminate any such agency promptly upon request by the Company. Upon receiving such a notice of resignation or upon such a termination, or in case at any time such Authenticating Agent shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of this Section 6.14, the Trustee may and, upon request of the Company, shall appoint a successor Authenticating Agent which shall be acceptable to the Company and shall send written notice in the manner provided in Section 1.6 of such appointment to all Holders of Securities of the series with respect to which such Authenticating Agent will serve. Any successor Authenticating Agent upon acceptance of its appointment hereunder shall become vested with all the rights, powers and duties of its predecessor hereunder, with like effect as if originally named as an Authenticating Agent. No successor Authenticating Agent shall be appointed unless eligible under the provisions of this Section 6.14.

 

(d) The Company agrees to pay to each Authenticating Agent from time to time reasonable compensation for its services under this Section 6.14.

 

(e) If an appointment of an Authenticating Agent with respect to one or more series is made pursuant to this Section 6.14, the Securities of such series may have endorsed thereon, in lieu of the Trustee’s certificate of authentication, an alternate certificate of authentication in the following form:

 

This is one of the Securities of the series designated therein referred to in the within-mentioned Indenture.

 

 

U.S. Bank National Association,

As Trustee

   
  By  
  As Authenticating Agent
   
  By  
  Authorized Signatory

 

ARTICLE VII

 

HOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY TRUSTEE AND COMPANY

 

Section 7.1. Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Holders.

 

If the Trustee is not the Security Registrar, the Company will furnish or cause to be furnished to the Trustee:

 

(a) semi-annually (at intervals of not more than six months), not later than 15 days after each Regular Record Date (or, if there is no Regular Record Date relating to a series, semi-annually on dates set forth in the Board Resolution or supplemental indenture with respect to such series), a list, in such form as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of the Holders as of such date, and

 

(b) at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing, within 30 days after the receipt by the Company of any such request, a list of similar form and content as of a date not more than 15 days prior to the time such list is furnished.

 

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Section 7.2. Preservation of Information; Communications to Holders.

 

(a) The Trustee shall preserve, in as current a form as is reasonably practicable, the names and addresses of Holders contained in the most recent list furnished to the Trustee as provided in Section 7.1 and the names and addresses of Holders received by the Trustee in its capacity as Security Registrar. The Trustee may destroy any list furnished to it as provided in Section 7.1 upon receipt of a new list so furnished.

 

(b) Holders of any series may communicate pursuant to Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act with other Holders of that series or any other series with respect to their rights under this Indenture or the Securities of that series or any other series. The Company, the Trustee, the Registrar and any other Person shall have the protection of Section 312(c) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

Section 7.3. Reports by Trustee.

 

(a) Within 60 days after May 15 of each year, commencing the May 15 following the date of this Indenture, the Trustee shall, to the extent that any of the events described in Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act occurred within the previous twelve months, but not otherwise, send to each Holder a brief report dated as of such date that complies with Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act. The Trustee also shall comply with Sections 313(a), 313(b), 313(c) and 313(d) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

(b) A copy of each report at the time of transmission to Holders shall be sent to the Company and filed with the Commission and each securities exchange, if any, on which the Securities of that series are listed.

 

(c) The Company shall notify the Trustee if the Securities of any series become listed on any securities exchange or of any delisting thereof and the Trustee shall comply with Section 313(d) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

Section 7.4. Reports by Company.

 

(a) The Company shall:

 

(1) file with the Trustee, within 15 days after the Company files the same with the Commission, copies of the annual reports and of the information, documents and other reports (or copies of such portions of any of the foregoing as the Commission may from time to time by rules and regulations prescribe) which the Company may be required to file with the Commission pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act; or, if the Company is not required to file information, documents or reports pursuant to either of said Sections, then it shall file with the Trustee and the Commission, in accordance with, and to the extent required by, rules and regulations prescribed from time to time by the Commission, such of the supplementary and periodic information, documents and reports which may be required pursuant to Section 13 of the Exchange Act, in respect of a security listed and registered on a national securities exchange as may be prescribed from time to time in such rules and regulations;

 

(2) file with the Trustee and the Commission, in accordance with rules and regulations prescribed from time to time by the Commission, such additional information, documents and reports with respect to compliance by the Company with the conditions and covenants of this Indenture as may be required from time to time by such rules and regulations; and

 

(3) transmit by mail to all Holders, as their names and addresses appear in the Security Register, within 30 days after the filing thereof with the Trustee, such summaries of any information, documents and reports required to be filed by the Company pursuant to paragraphs (1) and (2) of this Section as may be required by rules and regulations prescribed from time to time by the Commission.

 

(b) In each case that the Company electronically delivers materials to the Trustee or files documents pursuant to the Commission’s “EDGAR” system (or any successor electronic filing system), such delivery or filing shall be deemed to be “filed” with the Trustee for purposes of this Section 7.4, provided, however, that the Trustee shall have no responsibility whatsoever to determine if such filing has occurred.

  

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(c) Delivery of such reports, information and documents to the Trustee pursuant to paragraph (a)(1) and (a)(2) of this Section 7.4 is for informational purposes only and the Trustee’s receipt of such shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including the Company’s compliance with any of its covenants hereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on an Officer’s Certificate).

 

ARTICLE VIII

 

CONSOLIDATION, MERGER, CONVEYANCE, TRANSFER OR LEASE

 

Section 8.1. Company May Consolidate, Etc., Only on Certain Terms.

 

(a) The Company shall not merge or consolidate with or into any other Person (other than a merger of a wholly owned Subsidiary of the Company into the Company) or sell, transfer, lease, convey or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of its property (provided that, for the avoidance of doubt, a pledge of assets pursuant to any secured debt instrument of the Company or its Subsidiaries shall not be deemed to be any such sale, transfer, lease, conveyance or disposition) in one transaction or series of related transactions unless:

 

(1) the Company shall be the surviving Person (the “Surviving Person”) or the Surviving Person (if other than the Company) formed by such merger or consolidation or to which such sale, transfer, lease, conveyance or disposition is made shall be a corporation or limited liability company organized and existing under the laws of the United States of America, any state thereof or the District of Columbia;

 

(2) the Surviving Person (if other than the Company) expressly assumes, by supplemental indenture in form reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee, executed and delivered to the Trustee by such Surviving Person, the due and punctual payment of the principal of, and premium, if any, and interest on, all the Notes Outstanding, and the due and punctual performance and observance of all the covenants and conditions of this Indenture to be performed by the Company;

 

(3) immediately before and immediately after giving effect to such transaction or series of related transactions, no Default or Event of Default shall have occurred and be continuing; and

 

(4) in the case of a merger where the Surviving Person is other than the Company, the Company shall deliver, or cause to be delivered, to the Trustee, an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that such transaction and the supplemental indenture, if any, in respect thereto comply with this Section 8.1 and that all conditions precedent in this Indenture relating to such transaction have been complied with.

 

Section 8.2. Successor Substituted.

 

Upon any consolidation by the Company with or merger by the Company into any other corporation or any conveyance, transfer or lease of the properties and assets of the Company substantially as an entirety in accordance with Section 8.1, the successor corporation formed by such consolidation or into which the Company is merged or the Person to which such conveyance, transfer or lease is made shall succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of, the Company under this Indenture with the same effect as if such successor Person had been named as the Company herein, and thereafter, except in the case of a lease, the predecessor Person shall be relieved of all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.

  

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ARTICLE IX

SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

 

Section 9.1. Supplemental Indentures Without Consent of Holders.

 

Without the written consent of any Holders, the Company, when authorized by a Board Resolution, and the Trustee (at the direction of the Company) at any time and from time to time, may enter into one or more indentures supplemental hereto to undertake clarifications and certain other changes that would not adversely affect Holders in any material respect, including changes:

 

(1) to evidence the succession of another Person to the Company, and the assumption by any such successor of the covenants, agreements and obligations of the Company herein and in the Securities;

 

(2) to add to the covenants of the Company such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the protection of the Holders of all or any series of Securities;

 

(3) to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and continuance, of a default in any of such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions pursuant to Section 9.1(2) an Event of Default;

 

(4) to modify, eliminate or add to any of the provisions of this Indenture to such extent as necessary to effect the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act, and to add to this Indenture such other provisions as may be expressly permitted by the Trust Indenture Act, excluding however, the provisions referred to in Section 316(a)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act;

 

(5) to cure any ambiguity, to correct or supplement any provision herein or in any supplemental indenture which may be defective or inconsistent with any other provisions herein or in any supplemental indenture;

 

(6) to secure the Securities;

 

(7) to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more series and to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee, pursuant to the requirements of Section 6.11(b);

 

(8) to establish the form or terms of Securities of any series as permitted by Sections 2.1 and 3.1, including any subordination provisions; or

 

(9) to make any other provisions with respect to matters or questions arising under this Indenture, provided such action shall not adversely affect the interests of the Holders of Securities of any series in any material respect.

 

Section 9.2. Supplemental Indentures with Consent of Holders.

 

(a) With the consent of the Holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of each series so affected by such supplemental indenture, by Act of said Holders delivered to the Company and the Trustee, the Company, when authorized by a Board Resolution, and the Trustee (at the direction of the Company) may enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of this Indenture or of the Securities of such series or of modifying in any manner the rights of the Holders of Securities of such series under this Indenture.

 

Without the written consent of the Holder of each Outstanding Securities affected thereby, a supplemental indenture under this Section 9.2 shall not (with respect to any Outstanding Security held by a non-consenting Holder):

  

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(1) change the Stated Maturity of, the principal of, or any installment of principal of or interest on, any Security, or reduce the principal amount thereof or the rate of interest thereon, or change any Place of Payment where, or the coin or currency in which, any Security or any premium or the interest thereon is payable, or impair the right to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after the Stated Maturity thereof (or, in the case of redemption, on or after the Redemption Date);

 

(2) reduce the percentage in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series, the consent of whose Holders is required for any such supplemental indenture, or the consent of whose Holders is required for any waiver (of compliance with certain provisions of this Indenture or certain defaults hereunder and their consequences) provided for in this Indenture; or

 

(3) modify any of the provisions of this Section 9.2 or Section 5.13, except to increase the percentage in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series, the consent of whose Holders is required under any such Section or to provide that certain other provisions of this Indenture cannot be modified or waived without the consent of the Holder of each Outstanding Security affected thereby; provided, however, that this clause shall not be deemed to require the consent of any Holder with respect to changes in the references to “the Trustee” and concomitant changes in this Section, or the deletion of this proviso, in accordance with the requirements of Sections 6.11(b) and 9.1(7).

 

(b) A supplemental indenture which changes or eliminates any covenant or other provision of this Indenture which has expressly been included solely for the benefit of one or more particular series of Securities, or which modifies the rights of the Holders of Securities of such series with respect to such covenant or other provision, shall be deemed not to affect the rights under this Indenture of the Holders of Securities of any other series.

 

(c) It shall not be necessary for any Act of Holders under this Section 9.2 to approve the particular form of any proposed supplemental indenture, but it shall be sufficient if such Act shall approve the substance thereof.

 

(d) The Company may set a record date for purposes of determining the identity of Holders of Securities entitled to consent pursuant to this Section 9.2. Such record date shall be the later of (i) thirty days prior to the first solicitation of such consent or (ii) the date of the most recent list of Holders furnished to the Trustee prior to such solicitation pursuant to Section 7.1. Any vote or action pursuant to this Section 9.2 can only be taken by Persons who are Holders on such record date and, unless otherwise specified, such vote or action must take place on or prior to the 180th day after such record date. The Company may change the record date at its option, and the Company will provide written notice to the Trustee and to each Holder of any such change of record date.

 

Section 9.3. Execution of Supplemental Indentures.

 

In executing, or accepting the additional trusts created by, any supplemental indenture permitted by this Article IX or the modifications thereby of the trusts created by this Indenture, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive, and (subject to Section 6.1) shall be fully protected in relying upon, an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel stating that the execution of such supplemental indenture is authorized or permitted by this Indenture and complies with the provisions hereof (including Section 9.5 hereof). The Trustee may, but shall not be obligated to, enter into any such supplemental indenture which affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties, or immunities or liabilities under this Indenture or otherwise.

 

Section 9.4. Effect of Supplemental Indentures.

 

Upon the execution of any supplemental indenture under this Article IX, this Indenture shall be modified in accordance therewith, and such supplemental indenture shall form a part of this Indenture for all purposes; and every Holder of Securities theretofore or thereafter authenticated and delivered hereunder shall be bound thereby.

 

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Section 9.5. Conformity with Trust Indenture Act.

 

Every supplemental indenture executed pursuant to this Article IX shall conform to the requirements of the Trust Indenture Act as then in effect.

 

Section 9.6. Reference in Securities to Supplemental Indentures.

 

Securities authenticated and delivered after the execution of any supplemental indenture pursuant to this Article IX may, and shall if required by the Trustee, bear a notation in form approved by the Trustee as to any matter provided for in such supplemental indenture. If the Company shall so determine, new Securities of any series so modified as to conform, in the opinion of the Trustee and the Company, to any such supplemental indenture may be prepared and executed by the Company, and such Securities may be authenticated and delivered by the Trustee in exchange for Outstanding Securities of such series.

 

ARTICLE X
COVENANTS

 

Section 10.1. Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest.

 

(a) The Company covenants and agrees for the benefit of each series of Securities that it will duly and punctually pay the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on the Securities of that series in accordance with the terms of the Securities of that series and this Indenture.

 

(b) An installment of principal or interest shall be considered paid on the date it is due if the Trustee or Paying Agent holds on that date money designated for and sufficient to pay such installment and is not prohibited from paying such money to the Holders pursuant to the terms of this Indenture or otherwise.

 

Section 10.2. Maintenance of Office or Agency.

 

(a) The Company will maintain in each Place of Payment for any series of Securities an office or agency where Securities of that series may be presented or surrendered for payment, where Securities of that series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange and where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of that series and this Indenture may be served. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the location, and any change in the location, of such office or agency. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required office or agency or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the address thereof, such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands.

 

(b) The Company may also from time to time designate one or more other offices or agencies where the Securities of one or more series may be presented or surrendered for any or all such purposes and may from time to time rescind such designations; provided, however, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Company of its obligation to maintain an office or agency in each Place of Payment for Securities of any series for such purposes. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of any such designation or rescission and of any change in the location of any such other office or agency.

 

Section 10.3. Money for Securities Payments to Be Held in Trust.

 

(a) If the Company shall at any time act as its own Paying Agent with respect to any series of Securities, it will, on or before each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on any of the Securities of that series, segregate and hold in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto a sum sufficient to pay the principal (and premium, if any) or interest so becoming due until such sums shall be paid to such Persons or otherwise disposed of as herein provided and will promptly notify the Trustee of its failure so to act.

 

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(b) Whenever the Company shall have one or more Paying Agents for any series of Securities, it will, prior to each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on any Securities of that series, deposit with a Paying Agent a sum sufficient to pay the principal (and premium, if any) or interest so becoming due, such sum to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such principal, premium or interest, and (unless such Paying Agent is the Trustee) the Company will promptly notify the Trustee of its action or failure so to act.

 

(c) The Company will cause each Paying Agent for any series of Securities other than the Trustee or the Company to execute and deliver to the Trustee an instrument in which such Paying Agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section 10.3, that such Paying Agent will:

 

(1) hold all sums held by it for the payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on Securities of that series in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto until such sums shall be paid to such Persons or otherwise disposed of as herein provided;

 

(2) give the Trustee notice of any default by the Company (or any other obligor upon the Securities of that series) in the making of any payment of principal (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series; and

 

(3) at any time during the continuance of any such default, upon the written request of the Trustee, forthwith pay to the Trustee all sums so held in trust by such Paying Agent.

 

(d) The Company may at any time, for the purpose of obtaining the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture or for any other purpose, pay, or by Company Order, direct any Paying Agent to pay, to the Trustee all sums held in trust by the Company or such Paying Agent, such sums to be held by the Trustee upon the same trusts as those upon which such sums were held by the Company or such Paying Agent; and, upon such payment by any Paying Agent to the Trustee, such Paying Agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such money.

 

(e) Any money deposited with the Trustee or any Paying Agent, or then held by the Company in trust for the payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on any Security of any series, and remaining unclaimed for two years after such principal (and premium, if any) or interest has become due and payable shall be paid to the Company on Company Request or (if then held by the Company) shall be discharged from such trust; and the Holder of such Security shall thereafter, as an unsecured general creditor, look only to the Company for payment thereof, and all liability of the Trustee or such Paying Agent with respect to such trust money, and all liability of the Company as trustee thereof, shall thereupon cease.

 

(f) In the event that the Paying Agent receives funds in advance of any due date, the Paying Agent shall be entitled to invest such funds in the U.S. Bank Money Market Deposit Account or any substantially similar successor account, any earnings on which shall be for the account of the Company.

 

Section 10.4. Corporate Existence.

 

Subject to Article VIII, the Company will do or cause to be done all things necessary to preserve and keep in full force and effect its corporate existence.

 

Section 10.5. [Reserved].

 

Section 10.6. Statement by Officer as to Default.

 

The Company will deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year of the Company ending after the date hereof, an Officer’s Certificate signed by the principal executive officer, principal financial officer or principal accounting officer stating whether or not to the best knowledge of the signer thereof the Company is in default in the performance and observance of any of the terms, provisions and conditions applicable to the Company and, if the Company shall be in default, specifying all such defaults and the nature and status thereof of which he or she may have knowledge. If any default or Event of Default under Section 5.1 has occurred and is continuing, within 10 Business Days after its becoming aware of such occurrence the Company shall deliver to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate specifying such event and what action the Company is taking or proposes to take with respect thereto.

 

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ARTICLE XI

 

REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES

 

Section 11.1. Applicability of Article.

 

Securities of any series which are redeemable before their Stated Maturity shall be redeemable in accordance with their terms and (except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 3.1 for Securities of any series) in accordance with this Article XI.

 

Section 11.2. Election to Redeem; Notice to Trustee.

 

The election of the Company to redeem any Securities shall be evidenced by a Board Resolution. In case of any redemption at the election of the Company of less than all the Securities of like tenor of any series, the Company shall, at least 30 days and not more than 60 days prior to the Redemption Date fixed by the Company, notify the Trustee of such Redemption Date and of the principal amount of Securities of such series to be redeemed. Any such notice may be cancelled at any time prior to notice of such redemption being sent to any Holder and shall thereby be void and of no effect. In the case of any redemption of Securities prior to the expiration of any restriction on such redemption provided in the terms of such Securities or elsewhere in this Indenture, the Company shall furnish the Trustee with an Officer’s Certificate evidencing compliance with such restriction.

 

Section 11.3. Selection by Trustee of Securities to Be Redeemed.

 

(a) If less than all the Securities of like tenor of any series are to be redeemed, the particular securities to be redeemed shall be selected by the Trustee not more than 45 days prior to the redemption date, from the Outstanding Securities of like tenor of such series not previously called for redemption, by lot or, in the Trustee’s discretion, on a pro-rata basis, subject to the redemption procedures of the applicable depositary, and which may provide for the selection for redemption of portions (equal to the minimum authorized denomination for Securities of that series or any integral multiple thereof) of the principal amount of such Securities of a denomination larger than the minimum authorized denomination for such Securities.

 

(b) The Trustee shall promptly notify the Company in writing of the Securities selected for redemption and, in the case of any Securities selected for partial redemption, the principal amount thereof to be redeemed.

 

(c) For all purposes of this Indenture, unless the context otherwise requires, all provisions relating to the redemption of Securities shall relate, in the case of any Securities redeemed or to be redeemed only in part, to the portion of the principal amount of such Securities which has been or is to be redeemed.

 

Section 11.4. Notice of Redemption.

 

(a) Notice of redemption shall be sent not less than 30 nor more than 60 days prior to the Redemption Date to each Holder of Securities to be redeemed, in accordance with Section 1.6; provided, that such notice of redemption may be furnished, in the Company’s discretion, more than 60 days prior to the Redemption Date if the notice is issued in connection with a satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture with respect to Securities of any series or a defeasance of the Securities pursuant to Articles IV or XIII hereof.

 

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All notices of redemption shall state:

 

(1) the Redemption Date;

 

(2) the Redemption Price (or the method of calculating or determining the Redemption Price);

 

(3) if less than all the Outstanding Securities of like tenor of any series are to be redeemed, the identification (and, in the case of partial redemption, the principal amounts) of the particular Securities to be redeemed;

 

(4) in case any Security is to be redeemed in part only, the notice which relates to such Security shall state that on and after the Redemption Date, upon surrender of such Security, the Holder of such Security will receive, without charge, a new Security or Securities of authorized denominations for the principal amount thereof remaining unredeemed;

 

(5) that on the Redemption Date the Redemption Price will become due and payable upon each such Security to be redeemed and, if applicable, that interest thereon will cease to accrue on and after said date;

 

(6) the CUSIP number and/or similar numbers of such Securities, if any (or any other numbers used by a Depositary to identify such Securities);

 

(7) the place or places where such Securities are to be surrendered for payment of the Redemption Price; and

 

(8) that the redemption is for a sinking fund, if such is the case.

 

(b) Notice of redemption of Securities to be redeemed at the election of the Company shall be given by the Company or, at the Company’s request made at least five days prior to the date the notice of redemption is to be given (unless a shorter time period shall be acceptable to the Trustee), by the Trustee in the name and at the expense of the Company.

 

Section 11.5. Deposit of Redemption Price.

 

No later than 11:00 a.m. New York time on the Redemption Date, the Company shall deposit with the Trustee or with a Paying Agent (or, if the Company is acting as its own Paying Agent, the Company shall segregate and hold in trust as provided in Section 10.3) an amount of money sufficient to pay the Redemption Price of, and (except if the Redemption Date shall be an Interest Payment Date) accrued interest on, all the Securities which are to be redeemed on that date; provided, however, that to the extent any such money is received by the Trustee or a Paying Agent from the Company after 11:00 a.m. New York time, on the due date, such money will be deemed deposited within one Business Day of receipt thereof.

 

Section 11.6. Securities Payable on Redemption Date.

 

(a) Notice of redemption having been given as aforesaid, the Securities so to be redeemed shall, on the Redemption Date, become due and payable at the Redemption Price therein specified and, from and after such date (unless the Company shall default in the payment of the Redemption Price and accrued interest) such Securities shall cease to bear interest. Upon surrender of any such Security for redemption in accordance with said notice, such Security shall be paid by the Company at the Redemption Price, together with accrued interest to the Redemption Date; provided, however, that installments of interest whose Stated Maturity is on or prior to the Redemption Date shall be payable to the Holders of such Securities, or one or more Predecessor Securities, registered as such at the close of business on the relevant Record Dates according to their terms and the provisions of Section 3.7.

 

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(b) If any Security called for redemption shall not be so paid upon surrender thereof for redemption, the principal (and premium, if any) shall, until paid, bear interest from the Redemption Date at the rate prescribed therefor in the Security.

 

Section 11.7. Securities Redeemed in Part.

 

Any Security which is to be redeemed only in part shall be surrendered at a Place of Payment therefor (with, if the Company or the Trustee so requires, due endorsement by, or a written instrument of transfer in form satisfactory to the Company and the Trustee duly executed by the Holder thereof or such Holder’s attorney duly authorized in writing), and the Company shall execute and, upon Company Order, the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver to the Holder of such Security without service charge, a new Security or Securities of the same series and of like tenor, of any authorized denomination as requested by such Holder, in aggregate principal amount equal to and in exchange for the unredeemed portion of the principal of the Security so surrendered.

 

ARTICLE XII

SINKING FUNDS

 

Section 12.1. Applicability of Article.

 

(a) The provisions of this Article shall be applicable to any sinking fund for the retirement of Securities of a series, except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 3.1 for Securities of such series.

 

(b) The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment”, and any payment in excess of such minimum amount provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment”. If provided for by the terms of Securities of any series, the cash amount of any sinking fund payment may be subject to reduction as provided in Section 12.2. Each sinking fund payment shall be applied to the redemption of Securities of any series as provided for by the terms of Securities of such series.

 

Section 12.2. Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities.

 

The Company (1) may deliver Outstanding Securities of a series (other than any previously called for redemption) and (2) may apply as a credit Securities of a series which have been redeemed either at the election of the Company pursuant to the terms of such Securities or through the application of permitted optional sinking fund payments pursuant to the terms of such Securities, in each case in satisfaction of all or any part of any sinking fund payment with respect to the Securities of such series required to be made pursuant to the terms of such Securities as provided for by the terms of such series; provided that such Securities have not been previously so credited. Such Securities shall be received and credited for such purpose by the Trustee at the Redemption Price specified in such Securities for redemption through operation of the sinking fund and the amount of such sinking fund payment shall be reduced accordingly.

 

Section 12.3. Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund.

 

Not less than 60 days prior to each sinking fund payment date for any series of Securities, the Company will deliver to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate specifying the amount of the next ensuing sinking fund payment for that series pursuant to the terms of that series, the portion thereof, if any, which is to be satisfied by payment of cash and the portion thereof, if any, which is to be satisfied by delivering and crediting Securities of that series pursuant to Section 12.2 and will also deliver to the Trustee any such Securities. Not less than 30 days before each such sinking fund payment date the Trustee shall select the Securities to be redeemed upon such sinking fund payment date in the manner specified in Section 11.3 and cause notice of the redemption thereof to be given in the name of and at the expense of the Company in the manner provided in Section 11.4. Such notice having been duly given, the redemption of such Securities shall be made upon the terms and in the manner stated in Sections 11.6 and 11.7.

 

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ARTICLE XIII

DEFEASANCE AND COVENANT DEFEASANCE

 

Section 13.1. Applicability of Article; Company’s Option to Effect Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance.

 

Unless pursuant to Section 3.1 provision is made for either or both of (a) defeasance of the Securities of a series under Section 13.2 to not be applicable with respect to the Securities of such series or (b) covenant defeasance of the Securities of a series under Section 13.3 to not be applicable with respect to the Securities of such series, then the provisions of such Sections 13.2 and 13.3, together with the other provisions of this Article XIII, shall be applicable to the Securities of such series, and the Company may at its option by or pursuant to a Board Resolution, at any time, with respect to the Securities of such series, elect to have either Section 13.2 or Section 13.3 be applied to the Outstanding Securities of such series upon compliance with the conditions set forth below in this Article XIII.

 

Section 13.2. Defeasance and Discharge.

 

Upon the Company’s exercise of the option set forth in Section 13.1 applicable to this Section 13.2, the Company shall be deemed to have been discharged from its obligations with respect to the Outstanding Securities of such series on the date the conditions set forth below are satisfied (hereinafter, “defeasance”). For this purpose, such defeasance means that the Company shall be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire indebtedness represented by the Outstanding Securities of such series and to have satisfied all its other obligations under such Securities and this Indenture insofar as such Securities are concerned (and the Trustee, at the expense and request of the Company, shall execute instruments acknowledging the same), except for the following which shall survive until otherwise terminated or discharged hereunder: (A) the rights of Holders of Outstanding Securities of such series to receive, solely from the trust fund described in Section 13.4 and as more fully set forth in such Section, payments in respect of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on such Securities when such payments are due, (B) the Company’s obligations with respect to such Securities under Sections 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 10.2 and 10.3, (C) the rights, powers, trusts, duties, and immunities of the Trustee under Sections 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.9, 4.2, 6.7 and Section 10.3(e), and otherwise the duty of the Trustee to authenticate Securities of such series issued on registration of transfer or exchange and (D) this Article XIII. Subject to compliance with this Article XIII, the Company may exercise its option under this Section 13.2 notwithstanding the prior exercise of its option under Section 13.3 with respect to the Securities of such series.

 

Section 13.3. Covenant Defeasance.

 

Upon the Company’s exercise of the option set forth in Section 13.1 applicable to this Section 13.3, the Company shall be released from its obligations under Sections 7.4 and 10.4 and clause (2) of the first paragraph of Section 8.1 and any other covenants to be applicable to the Securities of a series as specified pursuant to Section 3.1 unless specified otherwise pursuant to such Section (and the failure to comply with any such provisions shall not constitute a default or Event of Default under Section 5.1), and the occurrence of any event described in Section 5.1(4) and (7) and any other Events of Default to be applicable to the Securities of a series as specified pursuant to Section 3.1 unless specified otherwise pursuant to such Section shall not constitute a default or Event of Default hereunder, with respect to the Outstanding Securities of such series on and after the date the conditions set forth below are satisfied (hereinafter, “covenant defeasance”). For this purpose, such covenant defeasance means that, with respect to the Outstanding Securities of such series, the Company may omit to comply with and shall have no liability in respect of any term, condition or limitation set forth in any such Section with respect to it, whether directly or indirectly by reason of any reference elsewhere herein to any such Section or by reason of any reference in any such Section to any other provision herein or in any other document, but the remainder of this Indenture and such Securities shall be unaffected thereby.

 

43 

 

 

Section 13.4. Conditions to Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance.

 

The following shall be the conditions to application of either Section 13.2 or Section 13.3 to the Outstanding Securities of such series:

 

(a) the Company shall irrevocably have deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee (or another trustee satisfying the requirements of Section 6.9 who shall agree to comply with the provisions of this Article XIII applicable to it) as trust funds in trust for the purpose of making the following payments, for the benefit of the holders of such Securities, (A) money in an amount, or (B) U.S. Government Obligations which through the scheduled payment of principal and interest in respect thereof in accordance with their terms will provide, not later than the due date of any payment, money in an amount, or (C) a combination thereof, sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants, investment bank or appraisal firm, to pay and discharge, and which shall be applied by the Trustee (or other qualifying trustee) to pay and discharge, (i) the principal of (and premium, if any) on and each installment of principal of (premium, if any) and interest on the Outstanding Securities of such series on the Stated Maturity or on the redemption date, as the case may be (the Company being required to specify whether the Outstanding Securities of such series are being defeased to maturity or to a particular redemption date), of such principal or installment of principal or interest and (ii) any mandatory sinking fund payments or analogous payments applicable to the Outstanding Securities of such series on the day on which such payments are due and payable in accordance with the terms of this Indenture and of such Securities. For this purpose, “U.S. Government Obligations” means securities that are (x) direct obligations of the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (y) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America, which, in either case, are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof, and shall also include a depository receipt issued by a bank (as defined in Section 3(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended) as custodian with respect to any such U.S. Government Obligation or a specific payment of principal of or interest on any such U.S. Government Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of such depository receipt; provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depository receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the U.S. Government Obligation or the specific payment of principal of or interest on the U.S. Government Obligation evidenced by such depository receipt;

 

(b) no Event of Default with respect to the Securities of such series shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit (other than a default resulting from borrowing of funds to be applied to such deposit and the grant of any lien securing such borrowing);

 

(c) no defaults or Events of Default related to bankruptcy, insolvency or organization occurs during the 90 days following the deposit;

 

(d) such defeasance or covenant defeasance must not result in the trust arising from the deposit constituting an investment company within the meaning of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”), unless such trust will be registered under the Investment Company Act or exempt from registration thereunder;

 

(e) such defeasance or covenant defeasance shall not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, any other agreement or instrument to which the Company is a party or by which it is bound (other than a default resulting from borrowing of funds to be applied to such deposit and the grant of any lien securing such borrowing);

  

44 

 

 

(f) such defeasance or covenant defeasance must not cause the trustee to have a conflicting interest within the meaning of the Trust Indenture Act;

 

(g) such defeasance or covenant defeasance shall not cause any Securities of such series then listed on any registered national securities exchange under the Exchange Act to be delisted;

 

(h) in the case of an election under Section 13.2, the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel stating that (x) the Company has received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling, or (y) since the date of this Indenture there has been a change in the applicable federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the Holders of the Outstanding Securities of such series will not recognize income, gain or loss for federal income tax purposes as a result of such defeasance and will be subject to federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such defeasance had not occurred;

 

(i) in the case of an election under Section 13.3, the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that the Holders of the Outstanding Securities of such series will not recognize income, gain or loss for federal income tax purposes as a result of such covenant defeasance and will be subject to federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such covenant defeasance had not occurred;

 

(j) such defeasance or covenant defeasance shall be effected in compliance with any additional terms, conditions or limitations which may be imposed on the Company in connection therewith pursuant to Section 3.1; and

 

(k) the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent provided for relating to either the defeasance under Section 13.2 or the covenant defeasance under Section 13.3, as the case may be, have been complied with.

 

Section 13.5. Deposited Money and U.S. Government Obligations to Be Held in Trust; Other Miscellaneous Provisions.

 

(a) Subject to the provisions of the last paragraph of Section 10.3, all money and U.S. Government Obligations (including the proceeds thereof) deposited with the Trustee (or other qualifying trustee, collectively, for purposes of this Section 13.5, the “Trustee”) pursuant to Section 13.4 in respect of the Outstanding Securities of such series shall be held in trust and applied by the Trustee, in accordance with the provisions of such Securities and this Indenture, to the payment, either directly or through any Paying Agent (including the Company acting as its own paying agent), to the Holders of such Securities, of all sums due and to become due thereon in respect of principal (and premium, if any) and interest, but such money need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.

 

(b) The Company shall pay and indemnify the Trustee against any tax, fee or other charge imposed on or assessed against the U.S. Government Obligations deposited pursuant to Section 13.4 or the principal and interest received in respect thereof other than any such tax, fee or other charge which by law is for the account of the Holders of the Outstanding Securities of such series.

 

(c) Anything in this Article XIII to the contrary notwithstanding, the Trustee shall deliver or pay to the Company from time to time upon Company Request any money or U.S. Government Obligations held by it as provided in Section 13.4 which, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants, investment bank or appraisal firm expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, are in excess of the amount thereof which would then be required to be deposited to effect an equivalent defeasance or covenant defeasance.

 

45 

 

 

(d) In the event that the Trustee is unable to apply the funds held in trust to the payment of obligations under the Securities by reason of a court order or governmental injunction or prohibition, then those of the Company’s obligations discharged under the defeasance or covenant defeasance will be revived and reinstated as though no deposit of funds had occurred, until such time as the Trustee is permitted to apply all funds held in trust under the procedure described above to the payment of obligations under the Securities. However, if the Company makes any payment of principal or interest the Holders, the Company will have the right to receive such payments from the trust in the place of the Holders.

 

* * * *

 

This instrument may be executed in any number of counterparts, each of which so executed shall be deemed to be an original, but all such counterparts shall together constitute but one and the same instrument. The exchange of copies of this Indenture and of signature pages by facsimile, PDF or other electronic transmission shall constitute effective execution and delivery of this Indenture as to the parties hereto and may be used in lieu of the original Indenture and signature pages for all purposes.

 

[The remainder of this page intentionally left blank.]

 

46 

 

 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed as of the date first above written.

 

  B. RILEY FINANCIAL, INC.
   
  By:  
    Name:
    Title:

 

[Signature Page to Base Indenture]

 

 

 

  U.S. Bank National Association, as Trustee
   
  By:  
    Name:
    Title:

 

[Signature Page to Base Indenture]

 

 

Exhibit 4.8

 

B. RILEY FINANCIAL, INC.

 

and

 

U.S. BANK NATIONAL ASSOCIATION,

as Trustee

 

INDENTURE

 

Dated as of ________, 20__

 

SUBORDINATED DEBT SECURITIES

 

 

 

 

CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE

 

TIA Section         Indenture Section
Section 310   (a)(1)     6.9
    (a)(2)     6.9
    (a)(3)     N/A
    (a)(4)     N/A
    (b)     6.8, 6.10
Section 311   (a)     6.13
    (b)     6.13
Section 312   (a)     7.1, 7.2
    (b)     7.2
    (c)     7.2
Section 313   (a)     7.3
    (b)     7.3
    (c)     7.3
    (d)     7.3
Section 314   (a)     7.4
    (a)(4)     1.1, 10.4
    (b)     N/A
    (c)(1)     1.2
    (c)(2)     1.2
    (c)(3)     N/A
    (d)     N/A
    (e)     1.2
Section 315   (a)     6.1
    (b)     6.2
    (c)     6.1
    (d)     6.1
    (e)     5.14
Section 316   (a)     1.1
    (a)(1)(A)     5.2, 5.12
    (a)(1)(B)     5.13
    (a)(2)     N/A
    (b)     5.8
    (c)     1.4
Section 317   (a)(1)     5.3
    (a)(2)     5.4
    (b)     10.3
Section 318   (a)     1.7

 

N/A means Not Applicable

 

Note: This Cross-Reference Table shall not, for any purpose, be deemed to be part of this Indenture.

 

 

 

 

Table of Contents

 

    Page
     
ARTICLE 1 DEFINITIONS AND OTHER PROVISIONS OF GENERAL APPLICATION 1
Section 1.1 Definitions 1
Section 1.2 Compliance Certificates and Opinions 9
Section 1.3 Form of Documents Delivered to Trustee 9
Section 1.4 Acts of Holders; Record Dates 10
Section 1.5 Notices, etc., to Trustee and Company 11
Section 1.6 Notice to Holders; Waiver 12
Section 1.7 Conflict with Trust Indenture Act 12
Section 1.8 Effect of Headings and Table of Contents 12
Section 1.9 Successors and Assigns 12
Section 1.10 Separability Clause 12
Section 1.11 Benefits of Indenture 13
Section 1.12 Governing Law 13
Section 1.13 Legal Holidays 13
Section 1.14 Indenture and Securities Solely Corporate Obligations 13
Section 1.15 Indenture May be Executed in Counterparts 13
ARTICLE 2 SECURITY FORMS 14
Section 2.1 Forms Generally 14
Section 2.2 Form of Face of Security 14
Section 2.3 Form of Reverse of Security 16
Section 2.4 Form of Legend for Global Securities 19
Section 2.5 Form of Trustee’s Certificate of Authentication 19
Section 2.6 Form of Conversion Notice 19
ARTICLE 3 THE SECURITIES 20
Section 3.1 Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series 20
Section 3.2 Denominations 23
Section 3.3 Execution, Authentication, Delivery and Dating 23
Section 3.4 Temporary Securities 25
Section 3.5 Registration; Registration of Transfer and Exchange 25
Section 3.6 Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities 26
Section 3.7 Payment of Interest; Interest Rights Preserved 27
Section 3.8 Persons Deemed Owners 28
Section 3.9 Cancellation 28
Section 3.10 Computation of Interest 29
ARTICLE 4 SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE 29
Section 4.1 Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture 29
Section 4.2 Application of Trust Money 30
ARTICLE 5 REMEDIES 30
Section 5.1 Events of Default 30
Section 5.2 Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment 31
Section 5.3 Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee 33
Section 5.4 Trustee May File Proofs of Claim 33
Section 5.5 Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities 33
Section 5.6 Application of Money Collected 34
Section 5.7 Limitation on Suits 34
Section 5.8 Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal, Premium and Interest and to Convert 35
Section 5.9 Restoration of Rights and Remedies 35

 

 -i-

 

 

Table of Contents

(continued)

 

    Page
     
Section 5.10 Rights and Remedies Cumulative 35
Section 5.11 Delay or Omission Not Waiver 35
Section 5.12 Control by Holders 35
Section 5.13 Waiver of Past Defaults 36
Section 5.14 Undertaking for Costs 36
Section 5.15 Waiver of Usury, Stay or Extension Laws 36
ARTICLE 6 THE TRUSTEE 37
Section 6.1 Certain Duties and Responsibilities 37
Section 6.2 Notice of Defaults 37
Section 6.3 Certain Rights of Trustee 37
Section 6.4 Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance of Securities 39
Section 6.5 May Hold Securities and Act as Trustee under Other Indentures 39
Section 6.6 Money Held in Trust 39
Section 6.7 Compensation and Reimbursement 39
Section 6.8 Conflicting Interests 40
Section 6.9 Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility 40
Section 6.10 Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor 40
Section 6.11 Acceptance of Appointment by Successor 42
Section 6.12 Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business 43
Section 6.13 Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company 43
Section 6.14 Appointment of Authenticating Agent 43
ARTICLE 7 HOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY TRUSTEE AND COMPANY 44
Section 7.1 Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Holders 44
Section 7.2 Preservation of Information; Communications to Holders 44
Section 7.3 Reports by Trustee 45
Section 7.4 Reports by Company 45
ARTICLE 8 CONSOLIDATION, MERGER, CONVEYANCE, TRANSFER OR LEASE 45
Section 8.1 Company May Consolidate, etc., Only on Certain Terms 45
Section 8.2 Successor Substituted 46
ARTICLE 9 SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES 46
Section 9.1 Supplemental Indentures Without Consent of Holders 46
Section 9.2 Supplemental Indentures with Consent of Holders 47
Section 9.3 Execution of Supplemental Indentures 48
Section 9.4 Effect of Supplemental Indentures 48
Section 9.5 Conformity with Trust Indenture Act 48
Section 9.6 Reference in Securities to Supplemental Indentures 49
Section 9.7 Subordination Unimpaired 49
ARTICLE 10 COVENANTS 49
Section 10.1 Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest 49
Section 10.2 Maintenance of Office or Agency 49
Section 10.3 Money for Securities Payments to be Held in Trust 49
Section 10.4 Statement by Officers as to Default 50
Section 10.5 Existence 51
Section 10.6 Maintenance of Properties 51
Section 10.7 Payment of Taxes and Other Claims 51
Section 10.8 Waiver of Certain Covenants 51
ARTICLE 11 REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES 51
Section 11.1 Applicability of Article 51

 

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Table of Contents

(continued)

 

    Page
     
Section 11.2 Election to Redeem; Notice to Trustee 52
Section 11.3 Selection by Trustee of Securities to Be Redeemed 52
Section 11.4 Notice of Redemption 52
Section 11.5 Deposit of Redemption Price 52
Section 11.6 Securities Payable on Redemption Date 54
Section 11.7 Securities Redeemed in Part 54
ARTICLE 12 SINKING FUNDS 54
Section 12.1 Applicability of Article 54
Section 12.2 Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities 55
Section 12.3 Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund 55
ARTICLE 13 DEFEASANCE AND COVENANT DEFEASANCE 55
Section 13.1 Company’s Option to Effect Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance 55
Section 13.2 Defeasance and Discharge 55
Section 13.3 Covenant Defeasance 56
Section 13.4 Conditions to Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance 56
Section 13.5 Deposited Money, U.S. Government Obligations and Foreign Government Obligations to be Held in Trust; Miscellaneous Provisions 58
Section 13.6 Reinstatement 59
ARTICLE 14 CONVERSION OF SECURITIES 59
Section 14.1 Applicability of Article 59
Section 14.2 Exercise of Conversion Privilege 60
Section 14.3 No Fractional Shares 61
Section 14.4 Adjustment of Conversion Price or Conversion Rate 61
Section 14.5 Notice of Certain Corporate Actions 61
Section 14.6 Reservation of Shares of Common Stock 62
Section 14.7 Payment of Certain Taxes upon Conversion 62
Section 14.8 Nonassessability 62
Section 14.9 Provision in Case of Consolidation, Merger or Sale of Assets 63
Section 14.10 Duties of Trustee Regarding Conversion 63
Section 14.11 Repayment of Certain Funds upon Conversion 64
ARTICLE 15 SUBORDINATION OF SECURITIES 64
Section 15.1 Agreement of Subordination 64
Section 15.2 Payments to Holders 64
Section 15.3 Subrogation of Securities 66
Section 15.4 Authorization to Effect Subordination 67
Section 15.5 Notice to Trustee 67
Section 15.6 Trustee’s Relation to Senior Debt 68
Section 15.7 No Impairment of Subordination 68
Section 15.8 Certain Conversions/Exchanges Deemed Payment 68
Section 15.9 Article Applicable to Paying Agents 69
Section 15.10 Senior Debt Entitled to Rely 69
Section 15.11 Reliance on Judicial Order or Certificate of Liquidating Agent 69
Section 15.12 Trust Monies Not Subordinated 69

 

 -iii-

 

 

INDENTURE, dated as of , 20 , between B. Riley Financial, Inc., a corporation duly organized and existing under the laws of the State of Delaware (the “Company”), having its principal executive office at 21255 Burbank Boulevard, Suite 400, Woodland Hills, California 91367 and U.S. Bank National Association, a national banking association, as trustee (the “Trustee”).

 

RECITALS OF THE COMPANY

 

The Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance from time to time of its unsecured subordinated debentures, notes or other evidences of indebtedness (herein called the “Securities”), to be issued in one or more series as provided in this Indenture.

 

All things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company, in accordance with its terms, have been done.

 

NOW, THEREFORE, THIS INDENTURE WITNESSETH:

 

For and in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the Holders thereof, it is mutually covenanted and agreed, for the equal and proportionate benefit of all Holders of the Securities or of series thereof appertaining, as follows:

 

ARTICLE 1

 

DEFINITIONS AND OTHER PROVISIONS OF GENERAL APPLICATION

 

Section 1.1 Definitions.

 

For all purposes of this Indenture, except as otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires:

 

(1) the terms defined in this Article have the meanings assigned to them in this Article and include the plural as well as the singular;

 

(2) all other terms used herein which are defined in the Trust Indenture Act, either directly or by reference therein, have the meanings assigned to them therein;

 

(3) all accounting terms not otherwise defined herein have the meanings assigned to them in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America, and, except as otherwise herein expressly provided, the term “generally accepted accounting principles” with respect to any computation required or permitted hereunder shall mean such accounting principles in the United States of America as are generally accepted at the date of such computation;

 

(4) all references to “$” refer to the lawful currency of the United States of America;

 

(5) unless the context otherwise requires, any reference to an “Article” or a “Section” refers to an Article or a Section, as the case may be, of this Indenture; and

 

(6) the words “herein,” “hereof” and “hereunder” and other words of similar import refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.

 

-1

 

 

“Act,” when used with respect to any Holder, has the meaning specified in Section 1.4.

 

“Additional Interest” has the meaning specified in Section 5.2(b).

 

“Affiliate” of any specified Person means any other Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with such specified Person.

 

“Authenticating Agent” means any Person authorized by the Trustee pursuant to Section 6.14 to act on behalf of the Trustee to authenticate Securities of one or more series.

 

“Board of Directors” means either the board of directors of the Company or any duly authorized committee of that board empowered to act for it with respect to this Indenture.

 

“Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification, and delivered to the Trustee.

 

“Business Day,” when used with respect to any Place of Payment, means each Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday which is not a day on which banking institutions in that Place of Payment are authorized or obligated by law or executive order to close.

 

“Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission, from time to time constituted, created under the Exchange Act, or, if at any time after the execution of this instrument such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act, then the body performing such duties at such time.

 

“Common Stock” includes any stock of any class of the Company which has no preference in respect of dividends or of amounts payable in the event of any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of the Company and which is not subject to redemption by the Company; provided, however, subject to the provisions of Section 14.9, shares issuable upon conversion of Securities shall include only shares of the class designated as Common Stock of the Company at the date of this Indenture or shares of any class or classes resulting from any reclassification or reclassifications thereof and which have no preference in respect of dividends or of amounts payable in the event of any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of the Company and which are not subject to redemption by the Company; provided, further, that if at any time there shall be more than one such resulting class, the shares of each such class then so issuable shall be substantially in the proportion which the total number of shares of such class resulting from all such reclassifications bears to the total number of shares of all such classes resulting from all such reclassifications.

 

“Company” means the corporation named as the “Company” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor Person shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Company” shall mean such successor Person.

 

“Company Request” or “Company Order” means a written request or order signed in the name of the Company by its Chairman of the Board, its Vice Chairman of the Board, its Chief Executive Officer, its President or a Vice President, and by its principal financial officer, its Treasurer, an Assistant Treasurer, its Secretary or an Assistant Secretary, and delivered to the Trustee.

 

“Constituent Person” has the meaning specified in Section 14.9.

 

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“control” when used with respect to any specified Person means the power to direct the management and policies of such Person, directly or indirectly, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by contract or otherwise; and the terms “controlling” and “controlled” have meanings correlative to the foregoing.

 

“Corporate Trust Office” means the corporate trust office of the Trustee at , Attention: , or such other office, designated by the Trustee by written notice to the Company, at which at any particular time its corporate trust business shall be administered.

 

“corporation” means a corporation, association, company, joint-stock company or business trust.

 

“Covenant Defeasance” has the meaning specified in Section 13.3.

 

“Defaulted Interest” has the meaning specified in Section 3.7.

 

“Defeasance” has the meaning specified in Section 13.2.

 

“Depositary” means, with respect to Securities of any series issuable in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act that is designated to act as Depositary for such Securities as contemplated by Section 3.1.

 

“Designated Senior Debt” means the Company’s obligations under any particular Senior Debt in which the instrument creating or evidencing the same or the assumption or guarantee thereof (or related agreements or documents to which the Company is a party) expressly provides that such Senior Debt shall be “Designated Senior Debt” for purposes of this Indenture (provided, that such instrument, agreement or other document may place limitations and conditions on the right of such Senior Debt to exercise the rights of Designated Senior Debt). If any payment made to any holder of any Designated Senior Debt or its Representative with respect to such Designated Senior Debt is rescinded or must otherwise be returned by such holder or Representative upon the insolvency, bankruptcy or reorganization of the Company or otherwise, the reinstated Indebtedness of the Company arising as a result of such rescission or return shall constitute Designated Senior Debt effective as of the date of such rescission or return.

 

“euro” or “euros” means the currency adopted by those nations participating in the third stage of the economic and monetary union provisions of the Treaty on European Union, signed at Maastricht on February 7, 1992.

 

“European Economic Area” means the member nations of the European Economic Area pursuant to the Oporto Agreement on the European Economic Area dated May 2, 1992, as amended.

 

“European Union” means the member nations of the European Union established by the Treaty of European Union, signed at Maastricht on February 7, 1992, which amended the Treaty of Rome establishing the European Community.

 

“Event of Default” has the meaning specified in Section 5.1.

 

“Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and any statute successor thereto, in each case as amended from time to time.

 

“Expiration Date” has the meaning specified in Section 1.4.

 

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“Foreign Government Obligation” means with respect to Securities of any series which are not denominated in the currency of the United States of America (x) any security which is (i) a direct obligation of the government which issued or caused to be issued the currency in which such security is denominated and for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged or, with respect to Securities of any series which are denominated in euros, a direct obligation of any member nation of the European Union for the payment of which obligation the full faith and credit of the respective nation is pledged so long as such nation has a credit rating at least equal to that of the highest rated member nation of the European Economic Area, or (ii) an obligation of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of a government specified in clause (i) above the timely payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the such government, which, in either case (i) or (ii), is not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof, and (y) any depositary receipt issued by a bank (as defined in Section 3(a)(2) of the Securities Act) as custodian with respect to any Foreign Government Obligation which is specified in clause (x) above and held by such bank for the account of the holder of such depositary receipt, or with respect to any specific payment of principal of or interest on any Foreign Government Obligation which is so specified and held, provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Foreign Government Obligation or the specific payment of principal or interest evidenced by such depositary receipt.

 

“Global Security” means a Security that evidences all or part of the Securities of any series and bears the legend set forth in Section 2.4 (or such legend as may be specified as contemplated by Section 3.1 for such Securities).

 

“Holder” means a Person in whose name a Security is registered in the Security Register.

 

“Indebtedness” means, with respect to any Person, and without duplication, whether absolute or contingent, secured or unsecured, due or to become due, (a) all indebtedness, obligations and other liabilities (contingent or otherwise) of such Person evidenced by a credit or loan agreement, note, bond, debenture, or other written obligation (whether or not the recourse of the lender is to the whole of the assets of such person or to only a portion thereof) or for money borrowed (including obligations of such Person in respect of overdrafts, foreign exchange contracts, currency exchange agreements, interest rate protection agreements, and any loans or advances from banks, whether or not evidenced by notes or similar instruments); (b) all obligations and liabilities (contingent or otherwise) of such Person evidenced by a note or similar instrument given in connection with the acquisition of any businesses, properties or assets of any kind; (c) all obligations and liabilities (contingent or otherwise) in respect of leases of such Person required, in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles, to be accounted for as capitalized lease obligations on the balance sheet of such Person and all obligations and other liabilities (contingent or otherwise) or as lessee under any leases or related documents for facilities, capital equipment or related assets, whether or not capitalized, entered into or leased for financing purposes; (d) all obligations of such Person (contingent or otherwise) with respect to interest rate and currency swaps, caps, floors, collars, hedge agreements, forward contracts or similar agreements or arrangements; (e) all obligations and other liabilities (contingent or otherwise) of such Person with respect to letters of credit, bankers’ acceptances or similar facilities, including reimbursement obligations with respect to the foregoing; (f) all obligations and liabilities of such Person or assumed as the deferred purchase price of property or services, but excluding trade accounts payable and accrued liabilities arising in the ordinary course of business; (g) all obligations of the type referred to in (a) through (f) above of another Person the payment of which, in either case, such Person has assumed or guaranteed or for which such Person is responsible or liable directly or indirectly, jointly or severally, as obligor, guarantor or otherwise, or which are secured by a lien on such Person’s property; and (h) any and all renewals, extensions, modifications, replacements, restatements and refundings of, or, any indebtedness or obligation issued in exchange for, any such indebtedness or obligation of the kind described in clauses (a) through (g) above.

 

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“Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed and as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into pursuant to the applicable provisions hereof, including, for all purposes of this instrument and any such supplemental indenture, the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act that are deemed to be a part of and govern this instrument and any such supplemental indenture, respectively. The term “Indenture” shall also include the terms of particular series of Securities established as contemplated by Section 3.1; provided, however, that if at any time more than one Person is acting as Trustee under this Indenture due to the appointment of one or more separate Trustees for any one or more separate series of Securities, “Indenture” shall mean, with respect to such series of Securities for which any such Person is Trustee, this instrument as originally executed or as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into pursuant to the applicable provisions hereof and shall include the terms of particular series of Securities for which such Person is Trustee established as contemplated by Section 3.1, exclusive, however, of any provisions or terms which relate solely to other series of Securities for which such Person is not Trustee, regardless of when such terms or provisions were adopted, and exclusive of any provisions or terms adopted by means of one or more indentures supplemental hereto executed and delivered after such Person had become such Trustee, but to which such person, as such Trustee, was not a party; provided, further that in the event that this Indenture is supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto which are only applicable to certain series of Securities, the term “Indenture” for a particular series of Securities shall only include the supplemental indentures applicable thereto.

 

“interest,” when used with respect to an Original Issue Discount Security, which by its terms bears interest only after Maturity, means interest payable after Maturity.

 

“Interest Payment Date,” when used with respect to any Security, means the Stated Maturity of an installment of interest on such Security.

 

“Investment Company Act” means the Investment Company Act of 1940 and any statute successor thereto, in each case as amended from time to time.

 

“Maturity,” when used with respect to any Security, means the date on which the principal of such Security or an installment of principal becomes due and payable as therein or herein provided, whether at the Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, repurchase at the option of the Holder, upon redemption or otherwise.

 

“Non-electing Share” has the meaning specified in Section 14.9.

 

“Non-Payment Default” has the meaning specified in Section 15.2.

 

“Notice of Default” means a written notice of the kind specified in Section 5.1(4).

 

“Officers’ Certificate” means a certificate signed by the Chairman of the Board, a Vice Chairman of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer, the President or a Vice President, and by the principal financial officer, the Treasurer, an Assistant Treasurer, the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary, of the Company, and delivered to the Trustee. One of the officers signing an Officers’ Certificate given pursuant to Section 10.4 shall be the principal executive, financial or accounting officer of the Company.

 

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“Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion of counsel, who may be counsel for, or an employee of, the Company, and who shall be reasonably acceptable to the Trustee.

 

“Original Issue Discount Security” means any Security that provides for an amount less than the principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon a declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 5.2.

 

“Outstanding,” when used with respect to Securities, means, as of the date of determination, all Securities theretofore authenticated and delivered under this Indenture, except

 

(1) Securities theretofore canceled by the Trustee or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation;

 

(2) Securities for whose payment or redemption money in the necessary amount has been theretofore deposited with the Trustee or any Paying Agent (other than the Company) in trust or set aside and segregated in trust by the Company (if the Company shall act as its own Paying Agent) for the Holders of such Securities; provided that, if such Securities are to be redeemed, notice of such redemption has been duly given pursuant to this Indenture or provision therefor satisfactory to the Trustee has been made;

 

(3) Securities as to which Defeasance has been effected pursuant to Section 13.2; and

 

(4) Securities which have been paid pursuant to Section 3.6 or in exchange for or in lieu of which other Securities have been authenticated and delivered pursuant to this Indenture, other than any such Securities in respect of which there shall have been presented to the Trustee proof satisfactory to it that such Securities are held by a bona fide purchaser in whose hands such Securities are valid obligations of the Company;

 

provided, however, that in determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of the Outstanding Securities have given, made or taken any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action hereunder as of any date, (A) the principal amount of an Original Issue Discount Security which shall be deemed to be Outstanding shall be the amount of the principal thereof which would be due and payable as of such date upon acceleration of the Maturity thereof to such date pursuant to Section 5.2, (B) if, as of such date, the principal amount payable at the Stated Maturity of a Security is not determinable, the principal amount of such Security which shall be deemed to be Outstanding shall be the amount as specified or determined as contemplated by Section 3.1, (C) the principal amount of a Security denominated in one or more non-U.S. dollar currencies or currency units which shall be deemed to be Outstanding shall be the U.S. dollar equivalent, determined as of such date in the manner provided as contemplated by Section 3.1, of the principal amount of such Security (or, in the case of a Security described in clause (A) or (B) above, of the amount determined as provided in such clause), and (D) Securities owned by the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities or any Affiliate of the Company or of such other obligor shall be disregarded and deemed not to be Outstanding, except that, in determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying upon any such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, only Securities which the Trustee knows to be so owned shall be so disregarded. Securities so owned which have been pledged in good faith may be regarded as Outstanding if the pledgee establishes to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right so to act with respect to such Securities and that the pledgee is not the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities or any Affiliate of the Company or of such other obligor.

 

“Paying Agent” means any Person authorized by the Company to pay the principal of or any premium or interest on any Securities on behalf of the Company.

 

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“Payment Blockage Notice” has the meaning specified in Section 15.2.

 

“Payment Default” has the meaning specified in Section 15.2.

 

“Person” means any individual, corporation, limited liability company, partnership, joint venture, trust, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof.

 

“Place of Payment,” when used with respect to the Securities of any series, means the place or places where the principal of and any premium and interest on the Securities of that series are payable as specified as contemplated by Section 3.1.

 

“Predecessor Security” of any particular Security means every previous Security evidencing all or a portion of the same debt as that evidenced by such particular Security; and, for the purposes of this definition, any Security authenticated and delivered under Section 3.6 in exchange for or in lieu of a mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be deemed to evidence the same debt as the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security.

 

“Record Date” means any Regular Record Date or Special Record Date.

 

“Redemption Date,” when used with respect to any Security to be redeemed, means the date fixed for such redemption by or pursuant to this Indenture.

 

“Redemption Price,” when used with respect to any Security to be redeemed, means the price at which it is to be redeemed pursuant to this Indenture.

 

“Regular Record Date” for the interest payable on any Interest Payment Date on the Securities of any series means the date specified for that purpose as contemplated by Section 3.1.

 

“Reporting Default” has the meaning specified in Section 5.2(b).

 

“Representative” means the (a) indenture trustee or other trustee, agent or representative for any Senior Debt or (b) with respect to any Senior Debt that does not have any such trustee, agent or other representative, (i) in the case of such Senior Debt issued pursuant to an agreement providing for voting arrangements as among the holders or owners of such Senior Debt, any holder or owner of such Senior Debt acting with the consent of the required persons necessary to bind such holders or owners of such Senior Debt and (ii) in the case of all other such Senior Debt, the holder or owner of such Senior Debt.

 

“Responsible Officer” means, when used with respect to the Trustee, an officer of the Trustee in the Corporate Trust Office assigned and duly authorized by the Trustee to administer its corporate trust matters with respect to this Indenture.

 

“Securities” has the meaning stated in the first recital of this Indenture and more particularly means any Securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

 

“Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933 and any statute successor thereto, in each case as amended from time to time.

 

“Security Register” and “Security Registrar” have the respective meanings specified in Section 3.5.

 

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“Senior Debt” means the principal of, premium, if any, interest (including all interest accruing subsequent to the commencement of any bankruptcy or similar proceeding, whether or not a claim for post-petition interest is allowable as a claim in any such proceeding) and rent payable on or in connection with, and all fees, costs, expenses and other amounts accrued or due on or in connection with, Indebtedness of the Company, whether outstanding on the date of this Indenture or thereafter created, incurred, assumed, guaranteed or in effect guaranteed by the Company (including all deferrals, renewals, extensions or refundings of, or amendments, modifications or supplements to, the foregoing), unless in the case of any particular Indebtedness the instrument creating or evidencing the same or the assumption or guarantee thereof expressly provides that such Indebtedness shall not be senior in right of payment to the Securities or expressly provides that such Indebtedness is “pari passu” or “ junior” to the Securities. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the term Senior Debt shall not include any Indebtedness of the Company to any Subsidiary of the Company. If any payment made to any holder of any Senior Debt or its Representative with respect to such Senior Debt is rescinded or must otherwise be returned by such holder or Representative upon the insolvency, bankruptcy or reorganization of the Company or otherwise, the reinstated Indebtedness of the Company arising as a result of such rescission or return shall constitute Senior Debt effective as of the date of such rescission or return.

 

“Special Record Date” for the payment of any Defaulted Interest means a date fixed by the Trustee pursuant to Section 3.7.

 

“Stated Maturity,” when used with respect to any Security or any installment of principal thereof or interest thereon, means the date specified in such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security or such installment of principal or interest is due and payable.

 

“Subsidiary” means a Person of which at least a majority of the outstanding voting stock having the power to elect a majority of the board of directors of such Person (in the case of a corporation) is, or of which at least a majority of the equity interests (in the case of a Person which is not a corporation) are, at the time owned, directly or indirectly, by the Company or by one or more other Subsidiaries, or by the Company and one or more other Subsidiaries. For the purposes of this definition, “voting stock” means stock or similar interests to the Company which ordinarily has or have voting power for the election of directors or persons performing similar functions, whether at all times or only so long as no senior class of stock or other interests has or have such voting power by reason of any contingency.

 

“Trust Indenture Act” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 as in force at the date as of which this instrument was executed; provided, however, that in the event the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 is amended after such date, “Trust Indenture Act” means, to the extent required by any such amendment, the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 as so amended.

 

“Trustee” means the Person named as the “Trustee” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor Trustee shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Trustee” shall mean or include each Person who is then a Trustee hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any series shall mean the Trustee with respect to Securities of that series.

 

“U.S. Government Obligation” means (x) any security which is (i) a direct obligation of the United States of America for the payment of which the full faith and credit of the United States of America is pledged or (ii) an obligation of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America, which, in either case (i) or (ii), is not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof, and (y) any depositary receipt issued by a bank (as defined in Section 3(a)(2) of the Securities Act) as custodian with respect to any U.S. Government Obligation which is specified in clause (x) above and held by such bank for the account of the holder of such depositary receipt, or with respect to any specific payment of principal of or interest on any U.S. Government Obligation which is so specified and held, provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the U.S. Government Obligation or the specific payment of principal or interest evidenced by such depositary receipt.

 

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“Vice President,” when used with respect to the Company or the Trustee, means any vice president, whether or not designated by a number or a word or words added before or after the title “vice president.”

 

Section 1.2 Compliance Certificates and Opinions.

 

Upon any application or request by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under any provision of this Indenture, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee such certificates and opinions as may be required under the Trust Indenture Act. Each such certificate or opinion shall be given in the form of an Officers’ Certificate, if to be given by an officer of the Company, or an Opinion of Counsel, if to be given by counsel, and shall comply with the requirements of the Trust Indenture Act and any other requirements set forth in this Indenture.

 

Every certificate or opinion with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant provided for in this Indenture shall include,

 

(1) a statement that each individual signing such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition and the definitions herein relating thereto;

 

(2) a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based;

 

(3) a statement that, in the opinion of each such individual, he or she has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable him or her to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with; and

 

(4) a statement as to whether, in the opinion of each such individual, such condition or covenant has been complied with.

 

Section 1.3 Form of Documents Delivered to Trustee.

 

In any case where several matters are required to be certified by, or covered by an opinion of, any specified Person, it is not necessary that all such matters be certified by, or covered by the opinion of, only one such Person, or that they be so certified or covered by only one document, but one such Person may certify or give an opinion with respect to some matters and one or more other such Persons as to other matters, and any such Person may certify or give an opinion as to such matters in one or several documents.

 

Any certificate or opinion of an officer of the Company may be based, insofar as it relates to legal matters, upon a certificate or opinion of, or representations by, counsel, unless such officer knows, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know, that the certificate or opinion or representations with respect to the matters upon which his or her certificate or opinion is based are erroneous. Any such certificate or opinion of counsel may be based, insofar as it relates to factual matters, upon a certificate or opinion of, or representations by, an officer or officers of the Company stating that the information with respect to such factual matters is in the possession of the Company, unless such counsel knows, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know, that the certificate or opinion or representations with respect to such matters are erroneous.

 

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Where any Person is required to make, give or execute two or more applications, requests, consents, certificates, statements, opinions or other instruments under this Indenture, they may, but need not, be consolidated and form one instrument.

 

Section 1.4 Acts of Holders; Record Dates.

 

Any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action provided or permitted by this Indenture to be given, made or taken by Holders may be embodied in and evidenced by one or more instruments of substantially similar tenor signed by such Holders in person or by agent duly appointed in writing; and, except as herein otherwise expressly provided, such action shall become effective when such instrument or instruments are delivered to the Trustee and, where it is hereby expressly required, to the Company. The Trustee shall promptly deliver to the Company copies of all such instrument or instruments delivered to the Trustee. Such instrument or instruments (and the action embodied therein and evidenced thereby) are herein sometimes referred to as the “Act” of the Holders signing such instrument or instruments. Proof of execution of any such instrument or of a writing appointing any such agent shall be sufficient for any purpose of this Indenture and (subject to Section 6.1) conclusive in favor of the Trustee and the Company, if made in the manner provided in this Section.

 

The fact and date of the execution by any Person of any such instrument or writing may be proved by the affidavit of a witness of such execution or by a certificate of a notary public or other officer authorized by law to take acknowledgments of deeds, certifying that the individual signing such instrument or writing acknowledged to him or her the execution thereof. Where such execution is by a signer acting in a capacity other than his or her individual capacity, such certificate or affidavit shall also constitute sufficient proof of his or her authority. The fact and date of the execution of any such instrument or writing, or the authority of the Person executing the same, may also be proved in any other manner that the Trustee deems sufficient.

 

The ownership of Securities shall be proved by the Security Register.

 

Any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other Act of the Holder of any Security shall bind every future Holder of the same Security and the Holder of every Security issued upon the registration of transfer thereof or in exchange therefor or in lieu thereof in respect of anything done, omitted or suffered to be done by the Trustee or the Company in reliance thereon, whether or not notation of such action is made upon such Security.

 

The Company may set any day as a record date for the purpose of determining the Holders of Outstanding Securities of any series entitled to give, make or take any request, demand, authorization, direction, vote, notice, consent, waiver or other action provided or permitted by this Indenture to be given, made or taken by Holders of Securities of such series, provided that the Company may not set a record date for, and the provisions of this paragraph shall not apply with respect to, the giving or making of any notice, declaration, request or direction referred to in the next paragraph. If any record date is set pursuant to this paragraph, the Holders of Outstanding Securities of the relevant series on such record date, and no other Holders, shall be entitled to take the relevant action, whether or not such Holders remain Holders after such record date; provided that no such action shall be effective hereunder unless taken on or prior to the applicable Expiration Date by Holders of the requisite principal amount of Outstanding Securities of such series on such record date. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to prevent the Company from setting a new record date for any action for which a record date has previously been set pursuant to this paragraph (whereupon the record date previously set shall automatically and with no action by any Person be canceled and of no effect), and nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to render ineffective any action taken by Holders of the requisite principal amount of Outstanding Securities of the relevant series on the date such action is taken. Promptly after any record date is set pursuant to this paragraph, the Company, at its own expense, shall cause notice of such record date, the proposed action by Holders and the applicable Expiration Date to be given to the Trustee in writing and to each Holder of Securities of the relevant series in the manner set forth in Section 1.6.

 

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The Trustee may set any day as a record date for the purpose of determining the Holders of Outstanding Securities of any series entitled to join in the giving or making of (i) any Notice of Default, (ii) any declaration of acceleration referred to in Section 5.2, (iii) any request to institute proceedings referred to in Section 5.7(2) or (iv) any direction referred to in Section 5.12, in each case with respect to Securities of such series. If any record date is set pursuant to this paragraph, the Holders of Outstanding Securities of such series on such record date, and no other Holders, shall be entitled to join in such notice, declaration, request or direction, whether or not such Holders remain Holders after such record date; provided that no such action shall be effective hereunder unless taken on or prior to the applicable Expiration Date by Holders of the requisite principal amount of Outstanding Securities of such series on such record date. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to prevent the Trustee from setting a new record date for any action for which a record date has previously been set pursuant to this paragraph (whereupon the record date previously set shall automatically and with no action by any Person be canceled and of no effect), and nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to render ineffective any action taken by Holders of the requisite principal amount of Outstanding Securities of the relevant series on the date such action is taken. Promptly after any record date is set pursuant to this paragraph, the Trustee, at the Company’s expense, shall cause notice of such record date, the proposed action by Holders and the applicable Expiration Date to be given to the Company in writing and to each Holder of Securities of the relevant series in the manner set forth in Section 1.6.

 

With respect to any record date set pursuant to this Section, the party hereto which sets such record dates may designate any day as the “Expiration Date” and from time to time may change the Expiration Date to any earlier or later day; provided that no such change shall be effective unless notice of the proposed new Expiration Date is given to the other party hereto in writing, and to each Holder of Securities of the relevant series in the manner set forth in Section 1.6, on or prior to the existing Expiration Date. If an Expiration Date is not designated with respect to any record date set pursuant to this Section, the party hereto which set such record date shall be deemed to have initially designated the 180th day after such record date as the Expiration Date with respect thereto, subject to its right to change the Expiration Date as provided in this paragraph. Notwithstanding the foregoing, no Expiration Date shall be later than the 180th day after the applicable record date.

 

Without limiting the foregoing, a Holder entitled hereunder to take any action hereunder with regard to any particular Security may do so with regard to all or any part of the principal amount of such Security or by one or more duly appointed agents each of which may do so pursuant to such appointment with regard to all or any part of such principal amount.

 

Section 1.5 Notices, etc., to Trustee and Company.

 

Any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or Act of Holders or other document provided or permitted by this Indenture to be made upon, given or furnished to, or filed with, (1) the Trustee by any Holder or by the Company shall be sufficient for every purpose hereunder if made, given, furnished or filed in writing (or by facsimile transmissions, provided that oral confirmation of receipt shall have been received) to or with the Trustee at its Corporate Trust Office, Attention: Corporate Trust Department, or (2) the Company by the Trustee or by any Holder shall be sufficient for every purpose hereunder (unless otherwise herein expressly provided) if in writing and mailed, first-class postage prepaid, personally delivered or sent via overnight courier to the Company addressed to it at the address of its principal office specified in the first paragraph of this instrument or at any other address previously furnished in writing to the Trustee by the Company, Attention: Chief Financial Officer.

 

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Section 1.6 Notice to Holders; Waiver.

 

Where this Indenture provides for notice to Holders of any event, such notice shall be sufficiently given (unless otherwise herein expressly provided) if in writing and mailed, first-class postage prepaid, or delivered by hand or overnight courier, to each Holder affected by such event, at its address as it appears in the Security Register, not later than the latest date (if any), and not earlier than the earliest date (if any), prescribed for the giving of such notice. Neither the failure to mail or deliver by hand or overnight courier any notice, nor any defect in any notice so mailed or delivered by hand or overnight courier, to any particular Holder shall affect the sufficiency of such notice with respect to other Holders. Where this Indenture provides for notice in any manner, such notice may be waived in writing by the Person entitled to receive such notice, either before or after the event, and such waiver shall be the equivalent of such notice. Waivers of notice by Holders shall be filed with the Trustee, but such filing shall not be a condition precedent to the validity of any action taken in reliance upon such waiver.

 

In case by reason of the suspension of regular mail service or by reason of any other cause it shall be impracticable to give such notice by mail, then such notification as shall be made with the approval of the Trustee shall constitute a sufficient notification for every purpose hereunder.

 

Notwithstanding any other provision of this Indenture or any Security, where this Indenture or any Security provides for notice of any event (including any notice of redemption or purchase) to a Holder of a Global Security (whether by mail or otherwise), such notice shall be sufficiently given if given to the Depositary pursuant to the standing instructions from the Depositary.

 

Section 1.7 Conflict with Trust Indenture Act.

 

If any provision hereof limits, qualifies or conflicts with a provision of the Trust Indenture Act that is required under the Trust Indenture Act to be a part of and govern this Indenture, the latter provision shall control. If any provision of this Indenture modifies or excludes any provision of the Trust Indenture Act, which may be so modified or excluded, the latter provision shall be deemed to apply to this Indenture as so modified or to be excluded, as the case may be.

 

Section 1.8 Effect of Headings and Table of Contents.

 

The Article and Section headings herein and the Table of Contents are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof.

 

Section 1.9 Successors and Assigns.

 

All covenants and agreements in this Indenture by the Company shall bind its successors and assigns, whether so expressed or not.

 

Section 1.10 Separability Clause.

 

In case any provision in this Indenture or in the Securities shall be invalid, illegal or unenforceable, the validity, legality and enforceability of the remaining provisions shall not in any way be affected or impaired thereby.

 

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Section 1.11 Benefits of Indenture.

 

Nothing in this Indenture or in the Securities, express or implied, shall give to any Person, other than the parties hereto and their successors hereunder, the holders of Senior Debt and the Holders, any benefit or any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under this Indenture.

 

Section 1.12 Governing Law.

 

THIS INDENTURE AND THE SECURITIES SHALL BE GOVERNED BY AND CONSTRUED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK.

 

Section 1.13 Legal Holidays.

 

In any case where any Interest Payment Date, Redemption Date or Stated Maturity of any Security or the last date on which a Holder has the right to convert a Security at a particular conversion price or conversion rate, as the case may be, shall not be a Business Day at any Place of Payment, then (notwithstanding any other provision of this Indenture or of the Securities (other than a provision of any Security which specifically states that such provision shall apply in lieu of this Section)) payment of interest or principal (and premium, if any) or, if applicable to a particular series of Securities, conversion need not be made at such Place of Payment on such date, but may be made on the next succeeding Business Day at such Place of Payment with the same force and effect as if made on the Interest Payment Date or Redemption Date, at the Stated Maturity or on such last day for conversion, as the case may be.

 

Section 1.14 Indenture and Securities Solely Corporate Obligations.

 

No recourse for the payment of the principal of or premium, if any, or interest on any Security, or for any claim based thereon or otherwise in respect thereof, and no recourse under or upon any obligation, covenant or agreement of the Company in this Indenture or in any supplemental indenture or in any Security, or because of the creation of any indebtedness represented thereby, shall be had against any incorporator, stockholder, employee, agent, officer, or director or subsidiary, as such, past, present or future, of the Company or of any successor corporation, either directly or through the Company or any successor corporation, whether by virtue of any constitution, statute or rule of law, or by the enforcement of any assessment or penalty or otherwise; it being expressly understood that all such liability is hereby expressly waived and released as a condition of, and as a consideration for, the execution of this Indenture and the issue of the Securities.

 

Section 1.15 Indenture May be Executed in Counterparts.

 

This instrument may be executed in any number of counterparts, each of which shall be an original, but such counterparts shall together constitute but one and the same instrument. The exchange of copies of this Indenture and of signature pages by facsimile, PDF or other electronic transmission shall constitute effective execution and delivery of this Indenture as to the parties hereto and may be used in lieu of the original Indenture and signature pages for all purposes.

 

Section 1.16 Force Majeure.

 

In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for any failure or delay in the performance of its obligations under this Indenture arising out of or caused by, directly or indirectly, forces beyond its reasonable control, including without limitation strikes, work stoppages, accidents, acts of war or terrorism, civil or military disturbances, nuclear or natural catastrophes or acts of God, and interruptions, loss or malfunctions of utilities, communications or computer (software or hardware) services.

 

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ARTICLE 2

 

SECURITY FORMS

 

Section 2.1 Forms Generally.

 

The Securities of each series shall be in substantially the form set forth in this Article, or in such other form as shall be established by or pursuant to a Board Resolution or in one or more indentures supplemental hereto, in each case with such appropriate insertions, omissions, substitutions and other variations as are required or permitted by this Indenture, and may have such letters, numbers or other marks of identification and such legends or endorsements placed thereon as may be required to comply with the rules of any securities exchange or Depositary therefor or as may, consistently herewith, be determined by the officers executing such Securities, as evidenced by their execution thereof. If the form of Securities of any series is established by action taken pursuant to a Board Resolution, a copy of an appropriate record of such action shall be certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company and delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the delivery of the Company Order contemplated by Section 3.3 for the authentication and delivery of such Securities. Any such Board Resolution or record of such action shall have attached thereto a true and correct copy of the form of Security referred to therein approved by or pursuant to such Board Resolution.

 

The definitive Securities shall be printed, lithographed or engraved on steel engraved borders or may be produced in any other manner, all as determined by the officers executing such Securities, as evidenced by their execution of such Securities.

 

Section 2.2 Form of Face of Security.

 

[INSERT ANY LEGEND REQUIRED BY THE INTERNAL REVENUE CODE AND THE REGULATIONS THEREUNDER.]

 

B. RILEY FINANCIAL, INC.

 

__________________________________________________________________________

 

NO __________ $ __________
  CUSIP: __________

 

B. RILEY FINANCIAL, INC., a corporation duly organized and existing under the laws of Delaware (herein called the “Company,” which term includes any successor Person under the Indenture hereinafter referred to), for value received, hereby promises to pay to , or registered assigns, the principal sum of dollars on [if the Security is to bear interest prior to Maturity, insert — , and to pay interest thereon from or from the most recent Interest Payment Date to which interest has been paid or duly provided for, semi-annually on and in each year, commencing , at the rate of % per annum, until the principal hereof is paid or made available for payment [if applicable, insert — , provided that any principal and premium, and any such installment of interest, which is overdue shall bear interest at the rate of % per annum (to the extent that the payment of such interest shall be legally enforceable), from the dates such amounts are due until they are paid or made available for payment, and such interest shall be payable on demand]. The interest so payable, and punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date will, as provided in such Indenture, be paid to the Person in whose name this Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the Regular Record Date for such interest, which shall be the or (whether or not a Business Day), as the case may be, next preceding such Interest Payment Date. Any such interest not so punctually paid or duly provided for will forthwith cease to be payable to the Holder on such Regular Record Date and may either be paid to the Person in whose name this Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on a Special Record Date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest to be fixed by the Trustee, notice whereof shall be given to Holders of Securities of this series not less than 10 days prior to such Special Record Date, or be paid at any time in any other lawful manner not inconsistent with the requirements of any securities exchange on which the Securities of this series may be listed, and upon such notice as may be required by such exchange, all as more fully provided in said Indenture].

 

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[If the Security is not to bear interest prior to Maturity, insert — The principal of this Security shall not bear interest except in the case of a default in payment of principal upon acceleration, upon redemption or at Stated Maturity and in such case the overdue principal and any overdue premium shall bear interest at the rate of % per annum (to the extent that the payment of such interest shall be legally enforceable), from the dates such amounts are due until they are paid or made available for payment. Interest on any overdue principal or premium shall be payable on demand. Any such interest on overdue principal or premium which is not paid on demand shall bear interest at the rate of % per annum (to the extent that the payment of such interest on interest shall be legally enforceable), from the date of such demand until the amount so demanded is paid or made available for payment. Interest on any overdue interest shall be payable on demand.] Payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and [if applicable, insert — any such] interest on this Security will be made at the office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose in , in such coin or currency of the United States of America as at the time of payment is legal tender for payment of public and private debts [if applicable, insert —; provided, however, that at the option of the Company payment of interest may be made by check mailed to the address of the Person entitled thereto as such address shall appear in the Security Register].

 

Reference is hereby made to the further provisions of this Security set forth on the reverse hereof, which further provisions shall for all purposes have the same effect as if set forth at this place.

 

Unless the certificate of authentication hereon has been executed by the Trustee referred to on the reverse hereof by manual signature, this Security shall not be entitled to any benefit under the Indenture or be valid or obligatory for any purpose.

 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the Company has caused this instrument to be duly executed.

 

Dated: _______________   B. RILEY FINANCIAL, INC.
       
    By:  
       
    Title:  
ATTEST:      
       

 

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Section 2.3 Form of Reverse of Security.

 

This Security is one of a duly authorized issue of securities of the Company (herein called the “Securities”), issued and to be issued in one or more series under an Indenture, dated as of , 200 (herein called the “Indenture,” which term shall have the meaning assigned to it in such instrument), between the Company and , as Trustee (herein called the “Trustee,” which term includes any successor trustee under the Indenture), and reference is hereby made to the Indenture and all indentures supplemental thereto for a statement of the respective rights, limitations of rights, duties and immunities thereunder of the Company, the Trustee, the holders of Senior Debt and the Holders of the Securities and of the terms upon which the Securities are, and are to be, authenticated and delivered. This Security is one of the series designated on the face hereof [if applicable, insert — , limited in aggregate principal amount to $ ].

 

[If applicable, insert — The Securities of this series are subject to redemption upon not less than [if applicable, insert — 30] days’ notice by mail, [if applicable, insert — (1) on in any year commencing with the year and ending with the year through operation of the sinking fund for this series at a Redemption Price equal to 100% of the principal amount, and (2)] at any time [if applicable, insert — on or after , 20 ], as a whole or in part, at the election of the Company, at the following Redemption Prices (expressed as percentages of the principal amount): If redeemed [if applicable, insert — on or before , %, and if redeemed] during the 12-month period beginning of the years indicated,

 

Year     Redemption
Price
    Year     Redemption
Price
 
                             
                             
                             

 

and thereafter at a Redemption Price equal to % of the principal amount, together in the case of any such redemption [if applicable, insert — (whether through operation of the sinking fund or otherwise)] with accrued interest to the Redemption Date, but interest installments whose Stated Maturity is on or prior to such Redemption Date will be payable to the Holders of such Securities, or one or more Predecessor Securities, of record at the close of business on the relevant Record Dates referred to on the face hereof, all as provided in the Indenture.]

 

[If applicable, insert — The Securities of this series are subject to redemption upon not less than [if applicable, insert — 30] days’ notice by mail, (1) on in any year commencing with the year and ending with the year through operation of the sinking fund for this series at the Redemption Prices for redemption through operation of the sinking fund (expressed as percentages of the principal amount) set forth in the table below, and (2) at any time [if applicable, insert — on or after ], as a whole or in part, at the election of the Company, at the Redemption Prices for redemption otherwise than through operation of the sinking fund (expressed as percentages of the principal amount) set forth in the table below: If redeemed during the 12-month period beginning of the years indicated,

 

Year     Redemption
Price For
Redemption
Through
Operation of the
Sinking Fund
    Year     Redemption
Price For
Redemption
Otherwise Than
Through
Operation of the
Sinking Fund
 
                             
                             
                             

 

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and thereafter at a Redemption Price equal to % of the principal amount, together in the case of any such redemption (whether through operation of the sinking fund or otherwise) with accrued interest to the Redemption Date, but interest installments whose Stated Maturity is on or prior to such Redemption Date will be payable to the Holders of such Securities, or one or more Predecessor Securities, of record at the close of business on the relevant Record Dates referred to on the face hereof, all as provided in the Indenture.]

 

[If applicable, insert — Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Company may not, prior to , redeem any Securities of this series as contemplated by [if applicable, insert — clause (2) of] the preceding paragraph as a part of, or in anticipation of, any refunding operation by the application, directly or indirectly, of moneys borrowed having an interest cost to the Company (calculated in accordance with generally accepted financial practice) of less than % per annum.]

 

[If applicable, insert — The sinking fund for this series provides for the redemption on , in each year beginning with the year and ending with the year of [if applicable, insert — not less than $ (“mandatory sinking fund”) and not more than] $ aggregate principal amount of Securities of this series. Securities of this series acquired or redeemed by the Company otherwise than through [if applicable, insert — mandatory] sinking fund payments may be credited against subsequent [if applicable, insert — mandatory] sinking fund payments otherwise required to be made [if applicable, insert —, in the inverse order in which they become due].]

 

[If the Security is subject to redemption of any kind, insert — In the event of redemption of this Security in part only, a new Security or Securities of this series and of like tenor for the unredeemed portion hereof will be issued in the name of the Holder hereof upon the cancellation hereof.]

 

[If applicable, insert — The Indenture contains provisions for defeasance at any time of [the entire indebtedness of this Security] [or] [certain restrictive covenants and Events of Default with respect to this Security] [, in each case] upon compliance with certain conditions set forth in the Indenture.]

 

[If the Security is convertible into other securities of the Company, specify the conversion features.] The indebtedness evidenced by this Security is, to the extent and in the manner provided in the Indenture, subordinate and subject in right of payment to the prior payment in full of all Senior Debt of the Company, and this Security is issued subject to such provisions of the Indenture with respect thereto. Each Holder of this Security, by accepting the same, (a) agrees to and shall be bound by such provisions, (b) authorizes and directs the Trustee on his behalf to take such action as may be necessary or appropriate to effectuate the subordination so provided and (c) appoints the Trustee his attorney-in-fact for any and all such purposes.

 

[If the Security is not an Original Issue Discount Security, insert — If an Event of Default with respect to Securities of this series shall occur and be continuing, the principal of the Securities of this series may be declared due and payable in the manner and with the effect provided in the Indenture.]

 

[If the Security is an Original Issue Discount Security, insert — If an Event of Default with respect to Securities of this series shall occur and be continuing, an amount of principal of the Securities of this series may be declared due and payable in the manner and with the effect provided in the Indenture. Such amount shall be equal to — insert formula for determining the amount. Upon payment (i) of the amount of principal so declared due and payable and (ii) of interest on any overdue principal, premium and interest (in each case to the extent that the payment of such interest shall be legally enforceable), all of the Company’s obligations in respect of the payment of the principal of and premium and interest, if any, on the Securities of this series shall terminate.]

 

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The Indenture permits, with certain exceptions as therein provided, the amendment thereof and the modification of the rights and obligations of the Company and the rights of the Holders of the Securities of each series to be affected under the Indenture at any time by the Company and the Trustee with the consent of the Holders of more than 50% in principal amount of the Securities at the time Outstanding of each series to be affected. The Indenture also contains provisions permitting the Holders of specified percentages in principal amount of the Securities of each series at the time Outstanding, on behalf of the Holders of all Securities of such series, to waive compliance by the Company with certain provisions of the Indenture and certain past defaults under the Indenture and their consequences. Any such consent or waiver by the Holder of this Security shall be conclusive and binding upon such Holder and upon all future Holders of this Security and of any Security issued upon the registration of transfer hereof or in exchange herefor or in lieu hereof, whether or not notation of such consent or waiver is made upon this Security.

 

As provided in and subject to the provisions of the Indenture, the Holder of this Security shall not have the right to institute any proceeding with respect to the Indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee or for any other remedy thereunder, unless such Holder shall have previously given the Trustee written notice of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the Securities of this series, the Holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Securities of this series at the time Outstanding shall have made written request to the Trustee to institute proceedings in respect of such Event of Default as Trustee and offered the Trustee indemnity satisfactory to the Trustee, and the Trustee shall not have received from the Holders of a majority in principal amount of Securities of this series at the time Outstanding a direction inconsistent with such request, and shall have failed to institute any such proceeding, for 60 days after receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity. The foregoing shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Holder of this Security for the enforcement of any payment of principal hereof or any premium or interest hereon on or after the respective due dates expressed herein.

 

No reference herein to the Indenture and no provision of this Security or of the Indenture shall alter or impair the obligation of the Company, which is absolute and unconditional, to pay the principal of and any premium and interest on this Security at the times, place and rate, and in the coin or currency, herein prescribed.

 

As provided in the Indenture and subject to certain limitations therein set forth, the transfer of this Security is registrable in the Security Register, upon surrender of this Security for registration of transfer at the office or agency of the Company in any place where the principal of and any premium and interest on this Security are payable, duly endorsed by, or accompanied by a written instrument of transfer in form satisfactory to the Company and the Security Registrar duly executed by, the Holder hereof or its attorney duly authorized in writing, and thereupon one or more new Securities of this series and of like tenor, of authorized denominations and for the same aggregate principal amount, will be issued to the designated transferee or transferees.

 

The Securities of this series are issuable only in registered form without coupons in denominations of $ and any integral multiple thereof. As provided in the Indenture and subject to certain limitations therein set forth, Securities of this series are exchangeable for a like aggregate principal amount of Securities of this series and of like tenor of a different authorized denomination, as requested by the Holder surrendering the same.

 

No service charge shall be made for any such registration of transfer or exchange, but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection therewith.

 

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Prior to due presentment of this Security for registration of transfer, the Company, the Trustee and any agent of the Company or the Trustee may treat the Person in whose name this Security is registered as the owner hereof for all purposes, whether or not this Security be overdue, and neither the Company, the Trustee nor any such agent shall be affected by notice to the contrary.

 

All terms used in this Security that are defined in the Indenture shall have the meanings assigned to them in the Indenture.

 

Section 2.4 Form of Legend for Global Securities.

 

Unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 3.1 for the Securities evidenced thereby, every Global Security authenticated and delivered hereunder shall bear a legend in substantially the following form:

 

THIS SECURITY IS A GLOBAL SECURITY WITHIN THE MEANING OF THE INDENTURE HEREINAFTER REFERRED TO AND IS REGISTERED IN THE NAME OF A DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE THEREOF. THIS SECURITY MAY NOT BE EXCHANGED IN WHOLE OR IN PART FOR A SECURITY REGISTERED, AND NO TRANSFER OF THIS SECURITY IN WHOLE OR IN PART MAY BE REGISTERED, IN THE NAME OF ANY PERSON OTHER THAN SUCH DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE THEREOF, EXCEPT IN THE LIMITED CIRCUMSTANCES DESCRIBED IN THE INDENTURE.

 

Section 2.5 Form of Trustee’s Certificate of Authentication.

 

The Trustee’s certificates of authentication shall be in substantially the following form:

 

This is one of the Securities of the series designated herein referred to in the within-mentioned Indenture.

 

  ________________,
  as Trustee
     
  By:  
    Authorized Officer

 

Section 2.6 Form of Conversion Notice.

 

Conversion notices shall be in substantially the following form:

To B. RILEY FINANCIAL, INC.:

 

The undersigned owner of this Security hereby irrevocably exercises the option to convert this Security, or portion hereof (which is $2,000 and any integral multiple of $1,000 in excess thereof) below designated, into shares of Common Stock of the Company in accordance with the terms of the Indenture referred to in this Security, and directs that the shares issuable and deliverable upon the conversion, together with any check in payment for fractional shares and any Securities representing any unconverted principal amount hereof, be issued and delivered to the registered holder hereof unless a different name has been indicated below. If this Notice is being delivered on a date after the close of business on a Regular Record Date and prior to the opening of business on the related Interest Payment Date (unless this Security or the portion thereof being converted has been called for redemption on a Redemption Date during the period beginning at the close of business on a Regular Record Date and ending at the opening of business on the first Business Day after the next succeeding Interest Payment Date, or if such Interest Payment Date is not a Business Day, the second such Business Day), this Notice is accompanied by payment, in funds acceptable to the Company, of an amount equal to the interest payable on such Interest Payment Date of the principal of this Security to be converted. If shares are to be issued in the name of a person other than the undersigned, the undersigned will pay all transfer taxes payable with respect hereto. Any amount required to be paid by the undersigned on account of interest accompanies this Security.

 

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Principal Amount to be Converted

($2,000 and any integral multiple of $1,000 in excess thereof, if less than all)

 

U.S. $____

 

Dated: _________

 

  Signature(s) must be guaranteed by an eligible guarantor institution (banks, stock brokers, savings and loan associations and credit unions with membership in an approved signature guarantee medallion program) pursuant to Securities and Exchange Commission Rule 17Ad-15.
   
  Signature Guaranty

 

Fill in for registration of shares of Common Stock and Security if to be issued otherwise than to the registered Holder.

 

     
(Name)   Social Security or Other Taxpayer Identification Number
     
(Address)    
     
Please print Name and Address    
(including zip code)    

 

[The above conversion notice is to be modified, as appropriate, for conversion into other securities or property of the Company.]

 

ARTICLE 3

 

THE SECURITIES

 

Section 3.1 Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series.

 

The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more series. There shall be established in or pursuant to a Board Resolution and, subject to Section 3.3, set forth, or determined in the manner provided, in an Officers’ Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto, prior to the issuance of Securities of any series,

 

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(1) the title of the Securities of the series (which shall distinguish the Securities of the series from Securities of any other series);

 

(2) any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the series which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the series pursuant to Section 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 9.6 or 11.7 and except for any Securities which, pursuant to Section 3.3, are deemed never to have been authenticated and delivered hereunder);

 

(3) the Person to whom any interest on a Security of the series shall be payable, if other than the Person in whose name that Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the Regular Record Date for such interest;

 

(4) the date or dates on which the principal of any Securities of the series is payable;

 

(5) the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) at which any Securities of the series shall bear interest, if any, the date or dates from which any such interest shall accrue, the Interest Payment Dates on which any such interest shall be payable and the Regular Record Date for any such interest payable on any Interest Payment Date (or the method for determining the dates and rates);

 

(6) the place or places where the principal of and any premium and interest on any Securities of the series shall be payable;

 

(7) the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which any Securities of the series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company and, if other than by a Board Resolution, the manner in which any election by the Company to redeem the Securities shall be evidenced;

 

(8) the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase any Securities of the series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of the Holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which any Securities of the series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

(9) if other than denominations of $2,000 and any integral multiple of $1,000 in excess thereof, the denominations in which any Securities of the series shall be issuable;

 

(10) if the amount of principal of or any premium or interest on any Securities of the series may be determined with reference to an index or pursuant to a formula, the manner in which such amounts shall be determined;

 

(11) if other than the currency of the United States of America, the currency, currencies or currency units in which the principal of or any premium or interest on any Securities of the series shall be payable and the manner of determining the equivalent thereof in the currency of the United States of America for any purpose, including for purposes of the definition of “Outstanding” in Section 1.1;

 

(12) if the principal of or any premium or interest on any Securities of the series is to be payable, at the election of the Company or the Holder thereof, in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which such Securities are stated to be payable, the currency, currencies or currency units in which the principal of or any premium or interest on such Securities as to which such election is made shall be payable, the periods within which and the terms and conditions upon which such election is to be made and the amount so payable (or the manner in which such amount shall be determined);

 

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(13) if other than the entire principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of any Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 5.2;

 

(14) if the principal amount payable at the Stated Maturity of any Securities of the series will not be determinable as of any one or more dates prior to the Stated Maturity, the amount which shall be deemed to be the principal amount of such Securities as of any such date for any purpose thereunder or hereunder, including the principal amount thereof which shall be due and payable upon any Maturity other than the Stated Maturity or which shall be deemed to be Outstanding as of any date prior to the Stated Maturity (or, in any such case, the manner in which such amount deemed to be the principal amount shall be determined);

 

(15) if applicable, that the Securities of the series, in whole or any specified part, shall be defeasible pursuant to Section 13.2 or Section 13.3 or both such Sections, or any other defeasance provisions applicable to any Securities of the series, and, if other than by a Board Resolution, the manner in which any election by the Company to defease such Securities shall be evidenced;

 

(16) if applicable, the terms of any right to convert or exchange Securities of the series into shares of Common Stock of the Company or other securities or property;

 

(17) if applicable, that any Securities of the series shall be issuable in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities and, in such case, the respective Depositaries for such Global Securities, the form of any legend or legends which shall be borne by any such Global Security in addition to or in lieu of that set forth in Section 2.4 and any circumstances in addition to or in lieu of those set forth in Form of clause (2) of the last paragraph of Section 3.5 in which any such Global Security may be exchanged in whole or in part for Securities registered, and any transfer of such Global Security in whole or in part may be registered, in the name or names of Persons other than the Depositary for such Global Security or a nominee thereof;

 

(18) any addition to or change in the Events of Default which applies to any Securities of the series and any change in the right of the Trustee or the requisite Holders of such Securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable pursuant to Section 5.2;

 

(19) any addition to or change in the covenants set forth in Article 10 which applies to Securities of the series;

 

(20) any Authenticating Agents, Paying Agents, Security Registrars or such other agents necessary in connection with the issuance of the Securities of such series, including, without limitation, exchange rate agents and calculation agents;

 

(21) if applicable, the terms of any security that will be provided for a series of Securities, including provisions regarding the circumstances under which collateral may be released or substituted;

 

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(22) if applicable, the terms of any guaranties for the Securities and any circumstances under which there may be additional obligors on the Securities;

 

(23) any addition to or change in or modification to the subordinated provisions of this Indenture relating to the Securities of that series (including the provisions of Article 15), or different subordination provisions, including a different definition of “Senior Debt” or “Designated Senior Debt,” will apply to Securities of the series; and

 

(24) any other terms of the series (which terms shall not be inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, except as permitted by Section 9.1(5)).

 

All Securities of any one series shall be substantially identical except as to denomination and except as may otherwise be provided in or pursuant to the Board Resolution referred to above and (subject to Section 3.3) set forth, or determined in the manner provided, in the Officers’ Certificate referred to above or in any such indenture supplemental hereto.

 

If any of the terms of the series are established by action taken pursuant to a Board Resolution, a copy of an appropriate record of such action shall be certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company and delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the delivery of the Officers’ Certificate setting forth the terms of the series.

 

The Securities shall be subordinated in right of payment to Senior Debt as provided in Article 15.

 

Section 3.2 Denominations.

 

The Securities of each series shall be issuable only in registered form without coupons and only in such denominations as shall be specified as contemplated by Section 3.1. In the absence of any such specified denomination with respect to the Securities of any series, the Securities of such series shall be issuable in denominations of $2,000 and any integral multiple of $1,000 in excess thereof.

 

Section 3.3 Execution, Authentication, Delivery and Dating.

 

The Securities shall be executed on behalf of the Company by its Chairman of the Board, its Vice Chairman of the Board, its Chief Executive Officer, its principal financial officer, its President or one of its Vice Presidents, attested by its Treasurer, its Secretary or one of its Assistant Treasurers or Assistant Secretaries. The signature of any of these officers on the Securities m